Table 1

Key standards of care for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Organ systemIntervention
MuscularRegular specialist health assessments, physiotherapy, glucocorticoids, orthoses, wheelchair, hoist, electric bed, prevention of malignant hyperthermia
RespiratoryImmunisations, treatment of respiratory tract infections, lung function monitoring, pulse oximetry study, cough assistance device, non-invasive ventilation, tracheostomy
CardiovascularCardiovascular assessments with ECHO, ECG, blood pressure measurements, treatment of cardiomyopathy with ACE inhibitors and β-blockers
GastrointestinalMonitoring diet, teeth, swallowing, bowel function and weight gain, acid reducers, videofluoroscopy, gastrostomy
SkeletalBone density tests (DXA), calcium, vitamin D, bisphosphonates, surgery for scoliosis and joint contractures
Renal/urogenitalPrevention and treatment of dehydration, myoglobinuria and enuresis, urinalyses
NervousSpeech and language assessment, pain and sleep control, learning and psychosocial support, cataract screening
  • DXA, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; ECHO, echocardiography.