Table 1

Different types of service user engagement (modified from Walshe and Smith36)

LevelFocusMethods
MicroPatient information,
patient education and patient involvement in treatment and care decisions,
complaints
Doctor or nurse-patient consultations and interactions; appropriate use of interpreter services; parent information leaflets; information leaflets for mothers. Individual user experiences to inform experience-based design (EBD). Antenatal classes. Patient consultation aids.
Information for families, for example, from BLISS charity ‘for babies born too small, too soon too sick’.
Patient rights and patient advocates; PALS (Patient Advice and Liaison Service)
MesoEvaluation of services,
sharing information about services,
planning changes to local services including resource allocation,
local accountability
Patient surveys, for example, Picker Surveys, the POPPY survey; inspection and appraisal of services—for example, against national standards involving parents as appraisers.
Study days involving parents as speakers to share their stories; use of Facebook, Twitter and other smartphone Apps.
Engagement and consultation with Health and Social Services Overview and Scrutiny Committees (HOSCs), NEDs and other key groups, for example, LINKs.
Media and the Press.
MacroInfluencing national health policy and government agenda; engaging members of parliamentEngagement with and support of national voluntary sector organisations and charities, for example, Cystic Fibrosis Research Trust; the Down Syndrome Association.
  • NEDs (NHS non-executive directors), have the remit to help the NHS Trust boards to work in the public interest by facilitating and keeping patients and public properly informed, and being involved in planning resulting in quality improvements.36