Table 1

Baseline maternal and infant socio-economic, demographic, nutritional, biochemical and anthropometric factors

Maternal factorsValues
Demographic factors
Wealth index*66.3 (0.09)
Maternal age (years)* (n=1046)26.7 (4.9)
Educational level†
 Primary school159/1046 (15.2)
 Secondary school705/1046 (67.4)
 University/college182/1046 (17.4)
Occupation†
 Farmer/housewife560/1046 (53.5)
 Factory worker/trader350/1046 (33.5)
 Government official/clerk136/1046 (13.0)
Anthropometric factors
Height (cm)* (n=1045)153.6 (4.7)
Body mass index enrolment (kg/m2)*19.9 (2.0)
Body mass index group enrolment†
 Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2)271/1045 (25.9)
 Normal (18.5–25 kg/m2)759/1045 (72.6)
 Overweight (>25 kg/m2)15/1045 (1.4)
Mid upper arm circumference enrolment (cm)* (n=1045)23.8 (2.1)
Weight gain during pregnancy (kg)* (n=958)8.19 (2.6)
Antenatal factors
Gravidity†
 Primigravida326/1046 (31.2)
 Multigravida720/1046 (68.8)
Type of supplement taken during pregnancy†
 Daily IFA supplements350/1046 (33.5)
 Twice weekly IFA supplements363/1046 (34.7)
 MMN supplements333/1046 (31.8)
Change of diet when pregnant†
 No259/1046 (24.8)
 Yes787/1046 (75.2)
Meat intake during pregnancy at enrolment (number of times per week)* (n=1046)3.85 (2.26)
Persistent depression EPDS†
 No909/1046 (94.9)
 Yes49/1046 (5.1)
Biochemical factors
Haemoglobin enrolment (g/dL)* (n=1046)12.3 (1.2)
Haemoglobin 32 weeks (g/dL)* (n=948)12.4 (1.2)
Ferritin enrolment (μg/L)‡ (n=1042)77 (50 to 127)
Ferritin 32 weeks (μg/L)‡ (n=945)28 (17 to 42)
Iodine (μg/L)‡ (n=954)53 (30.6 to 87.3)
B12 enrolment‡ (pmol/L) (n=1043)394 (317 to 499)
B12 at 32 weeks‡ (pmol/L) (n=945)232 (187 to 285)
Folate enrolment‡ (nmol/L) (n=1041)28 (21.6 to 34.4)
Folate at 32 weeks‡ (nmol/L) (n=944)28.7 (22.4 to 33.5)
25-(OH) vitamin D* (nmol/L) (n=891)70.6 (22.2)
  • *Values are mean (SD).

  • †Values are number (%).

  • ‡Values are median (25th–75th percentile).

  • IFA, iron-folic acid; MMN, multiple micronutrient; EPDS, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.