Table 1

Availability of essential newborn care resources

Resources (n=22 hospitals)Present
n (%)
Ward organisation
 Most seriously ill babies are cared for in a section near nursing station18 (82)
 Isolation area in neonatal unit*11 (50)
Hand hygiene
 Sink, clean running water and soap†18 (82)
 Alcohol hand rub10 (46)
Emergency care
 Defined area for emergencies13 (59)
 Suction equipment working (n=20)‡19 (95)
 Bag valve mask set working (n=20)‡19 (95)
 Oxygen from any source available and working22 (100)
 Working pulse oximeter4 (18)
Routine care
 Vitamin K (n=21)§18 (86)
 All babies adequately warmed22 (100)
Special care/sick babies
 Working¶ phototherapy equipment (n=21)§19 (91)
 Benzylpenicillin22 (100)
 Gentamicin18 (82)
 Phenorbabitone injection17 (77)
 Kangaroo Mother Care (in any form)14 (64)**
 Paediatric burettes12 (55)
Laboratory tests
 Blood glucose22 (100)
 Full haemogram22 (100)
 Bilirubin19 (86)
 Blood culture10 (45)
  • Resource availability was assessed by direct observation (including checking drug stocks) by the researcher in the neonatal unit rather than by interviewing staff.

  • *Any of the following: designated isolation cot/incubator or a separate isolation room for separating sick (infected) babies from healthy ones.

  • All three available.

  • These equipment (working or not) were available in 20/22 hospitals.

  • §Data missing for one hospital.

  • ¶Working means the lights would turn on; irradiance was not measured.

  • **5/14 had a designated space for providing kangaroo care.