Table 2

Results of psychological questionnaire scores in children with asthma and healthy controls

QuestionnaireAsthma*Controls*p Value95% CI difference†
CDI (completed by 70 children with asthma and 70 controls)
 Rough score [0–54]7.6 (±5.2)6.2 (±4.3)0.0951.3 (−0.2 to 2.9)
 Centile [0–100]48.1 (±27.3)41.6 (±25.2)0.1486.4 (−2.3 to 15.2)
RFSC (45 asthma, 46 controls)
 Total score
  Rough score [80–240]116.9 (±20.4)114.3 (±20.8)0.5442.6 (−5.9 to 11.2)
  Decile [1–10]5.1 (±2.9)4.5 (±3.1)0.3870.5 (−0.7 to 1.8)
Subscale anxiety‡
  Failure and criticism5.3 (±2.9)5.0 (±3.2)0.6030.3 (−0.9 to 1.6)
  The unknown6.9 (±2.7)5.8 (±3.0)0.0951.0 (−0.2 to 2.2)
  Small injuries and animals5.5 (±3.1)5.1 (±3.0)0.9100.4 (−0.9 to 1.6)
  Danger and death5.1 (±2.6)5.0 (±2.8)0.8740.1 (−1.0 to 1.2)
  Medical fear5.4 (±2.7)6.5 (±2.9)0.852−1.1 (−2.3 to 0.05)
SPC-C (42 asthma, 44 controls)
Level of self-esteem
  Rough score [6–24]60.1 (±32.7)66.9 (±28.0)0.3056.8 (−19.9 to 6.3)
  Centile [0–100]20.6 (±3.6)21.5 (±2.5)0.188−0.9 (−2.3 to 0.4)
Other domains§
  School skills17.1 (±4.3)18.2 (±3.4)0.195−1.1 (−2.7 to 0.6)
  Social acceptance19.1 (±3.9)22.1 (±10.6)0.087−3.0 (−6.4 to 0.4)
  Sporting skills18.6 (±4.1)19.7 (±3.1)0.151−1.1 (−2.7 to 0.4)
  Physical appearance20.4 (4.2)21.0 (±3.5)0.460−0.6 (−2.3 to 1.0)
  Behaviour and attitude17.6 (±3.7)19.1 (±3.0)0.040−1.5 (−3.0 to −0.07)
SPC-A (28 asthma, 26 controls)
Level of self-esteem
  Rough score [6–24]56.5 (±27.0)66.0 (±26.2)0.192−9.6 (−24.1 to 5.0)
  Centile [0–100]16.0 (±2.0)16.9 (±2.5)0.234−0.9 (−2.3 to 0.6)
Other domains§
  School skills14.3 (±2.9)14.3 (±2.0)0.9810.0 (−1.4 to 1.4)
  Social acceptance15.9 (±3.3)16.5 (±2.4)0.464−0.6 (−2.1 to 1.0)
  Sporting skills12.1 (±4.2)13.4 (±2.6)0.185−1.3 (−3.2 to 0.6)
  Physical appearance13.9 (±3.5)14.9 (±3.3)0.960−1.0 (−2.8 to 0.9)
  Behaviour and attitude15.5 (±3.2)16.1 (±3.2)0.484−0.6 (−2.4 to 1.1)
  Close friendships18.1 (±2.1)18.5 (±1.4)0.336−0.5 (−1.4 to 0.5)
STAIC (70 asthma, 70 controls)
 Anxiety state
  Rough score [20–60]26.7 (±4.3)28.0 (±3.7)0.052−1.3 (−2.7 to 0.01)
  Decile [1–10]3.6 (±2.6)4.2 (±2.4)0.219−0.5 (−1.4 to 0.3)
 Anxiety trait
  Rough score [20–60]30.5 (±6.6)29.2 (±6.5)0.2421.3 (−0.9 to 3.5)
  Decile [1–10]5.0 (±3.1)4.3 (±2.9)0.1630.7 (−0.3 to 1.7)
  • Results on primary end points are given in bold.

  • *Data in numbers (%) or in mean (+SEM).

  • †Difference in means (Asthma—Control) (confidence interval (95% CI) of the difference).

  • ‡Decile score [0–10].

  • §Centile score [0–100].

  • CDI, Childhood Depression Inventory; RFSC, Revised Fear Survey for Children; STAIC, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children.