Table 1

Summary of randomised controlled trials referred to in the article

Name of the trialAcronymNumber recruitedStudy populationDescription of the trial (P: population, I: intervention, C: control, O: outcome)Outcome
CATheter infections in Children25CATCH1484PaediatricsP: children in PICU
I: heparin-bonded or antibiotic impregnated central venous catheters (CVC)
C: standard CVC
O: hospital-acquired blood stream infection
Recruitment completed Pending publication
Control of Hyperglycaemia in Paediatric intensive care14CHiP1369PaediatricsP: ventilated children in PICU receiving vasoactive support
I: tight glycaemic control
C: standard treatment
O: ventilator-free days
No significant difference in outcomes
Fluid Expansion As Supportive Therapy26FEAST3141PaediatricsP: children with severe febrile illness and impaired perfusion in three African countries
I: normal saline bolus or 5% albumin bolus
C: no fluid bolus
O: 48-h mortality
Fluid boluses significantly increased 48-h mortality
HYpothermia Pediatric Head Injury Trial49HyP-HIT225PaediatricsP: children with severe TBI within 8 h of injury
I: hypothermia (32.5°C) for 24 h
C: normothermia
O: unfavourable outcome at 6 months
Hypothermia therapy did not improve the neurologic outcome and may increase mortality
REsearching severe Sepsis and Organ dysfunction in children: a gLobal PerspectiVE46RESOLVE477PaediatricsP: children with sepsis-induced cardiovascular and respiratory failure
I: drotrecogin alfa infusion
C: placebo infusion
O: composite time to complete organ failure resolution (CTCOFR)
No significant differences in CTCOFR or mortality More central nervous system bleeds in treatment group
Safe Paediatric Euglycaemia after Cardiac Surgery44SPECS980PaediatricsP: young children after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass
I: tight glycaemic control
C: standard care
O: rate of healthcare-associated infections
No significant differences in outcome
Therapeutic Hypothermia after Paediatric Cardiac arrest (IH: in-hospital arrest; OH: out-of-hospital arrest)35THAPCA (THAPCA-IH and THAPCA-OH)>750PaediatricsP: children undergoing mechanical ventilation after cardiac arrest >2 min
I: therapeutic hypothermia (32–34°C) for 48 h
C: therapeutic normothermia
O: survival with good neurobehavioural follow-up at 12 months
IH: recruitment ongoing
OH: recruitment completed. Pending publication
Transfusion Requirements In the PICU47TRIPICU637PaediatricsP: stable children in PICU
I: restrictive transfusion strategy (target >7 g/dL)
C: liberal strategy (target >9.5 g/dL)
O: new or progressive multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome
Restrictive transfusion strategy decreased transfusion requirements without increasing adverse outcomes
SUrfactant, Positive pressure and Pulse Oximetry Randomised Trial16SUPPORT1316Neonatesoximetry part:
P: infants born between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation
I: lower target oxygen saturation (85–89%)
C: higher target (91–95%)
O: composite outcome of severe retinopathy of prematurity or death
Lower oximetry target range did not significantly decrease the composite outcome of severe retinopathy or death, but increased mortality
DEcompressive CRAniectomy in diffuse traumatic brain injury48DECRA155Adults; children>15 years includedP: adults and children >15 with TBI in whom first-tier intensive care and neurosurgical therapies had not maintained intracranial pressure below accepted targets
I: decompressive craniectomy
C: standard care
O: Extended Glasgow Outcome scale score
Decompressive craniectomy decreased intracranial pressure but was associated with more unfavourable outcomes
Clinical Randomisation of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Haemorrhage trial20CRASH-220 211AdultsP: adult trauma patients with or at risk of significant bleeding
I: tranexamic acid
C: placebo
O: death within 4 weeks of injury
Significant reduction in all-cause mortality and death due to bleeding with tranexamic acid
  • PICU, paediatric intensive care units; TBI, traumatic brain injury.