Table 3

Potential interventions for addressing the main causes of unintentional injuries

DrowningFire/burnsRoad injuries
InterventionStrength of evidenceInterventionStrength of evidenceInterventionStrength of evidence
Eliminate water hazards—fill ditches, empty buckets etc.EffectiveSmoke detectorsEffectiveChild restraint systems and use of seat belts by older childrenEffective
Introduce a barrierEffective*Fire retardant fibresPromisingCreating safe routes to school—school busesInsufficient
Wearing personal flotation devicesPromisingSafer lighting source/stovesPromisingInfrastructure design—to reduce speeding (area traffic calming measures), separation of pedestrian from vehiclesPromising—Effective
Swimming classesInsufficientFire retardant household materialsPromisingVehicle design—car fronts, crumple zone, alcohol interlock systemsPromising
LifeguardsPromisingDesignated burn units/centreEffectiveBicycle and Motorcycle HelmetsEffective*
Education/parental supervisionPromisingEducation/parental supervisionPromisingSafety education and skillsInsufficient
Isolation pool fencing (four-sided)EffectiveLegislations—temperature of hot water, smoking, fireworksEffectiveImproving visibility of pedestriansPromising
Legislations—pool fencing, alcohol, boating under the influenceEffectiveResidential sprinklersPromisingLegislations—graduated driver license, mandatory child restraints law, drink-driving law, helmet usePromising
Combined approachesEffectiveCombined approachesEffectiveCombined approachesEffective
  • Source: World Report on Child Injury Prevention, 2008 & Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

  • *These are interventions for which some studies have been conducted in low and middle income countries. Those in italics are from Cochrane Review post-2008.