Table 1

Original articles from Asia examining gender-related disparity in healthcare in paediatric populations, categorised by country, presented chronologically

CountryAuthors (year)Type of studyNOutcome
IndiaGanatra et al (1994)62Cross-sectional456In under-5 children, parents were willing to spend more, travel extra distances, seek care from registered physicians for boys compared to girls
Griffiths et al (2002)63Retrospective8892No significant differences by gender in weight for age in the under-5 age group in three Indian states
Borooah et al (2004)64Retrospective4000Children—Immunisation rate and likelihood of getting nutritious diet when the mother is illiterate is 5% less in girls than in boys
Bhan et al (2005)65Prospective85 633Children—Hospitalisation rates for diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections or other febrile illness were significantly lower for girls
Sahni et al (2008)* 24Retrospective33 524(deliveries)Single hospital 11 decade review—Second child sex ratios if first born is girl, 716 females versus 1000 males
Asfaw et al (2010)12Cross-sectional†60th Indian National Sample Survey (NSS) data setHigher adjusted rate of hospitalisation for boys, higher outside borrowing/extreme measures for boys versus girls for meeting hospitalisation expenditures
Ramakrishnan et al (2011)13Prospective405Lesser proportion of girls underwent recommended cardiac surgery for paediatric congenital heart disease
Singh et al (2012)36Cross-sectional‡1972(1992–93), 3930 (2005–06)Gender-based within-household inequality against females in immunisation—Persistent but improved in the past 10 years
NepalPokhrel et al (2005)53Retrospective8112Children—Gender was a factor-determining choice of external care and choice of bearing the expenditure required for treatment with a bias towards males, although not statistically significant.
BangladeshDancer et al (2008)66Cross-sectional51722004 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) analysis—Better nutritional status for males versus females, higher z-scores for height for age
Rousham et al (1996)52Prospective1366Height and weight for age—Less for females in landless, poor households
Mitra et al (2000)20Prospective496In children, females more likely to die of severe diarrhoea, late presentation to hospital
PakistanNuruddin et al (2009)49Cross-sectional3740Higher female versus male under-5 mortality, but not attributed to differential healthcare-seeking behaviour
ChinaAttane et al (2009)* 19Retrospective†Census data—Multiple yearsCensus data analysis—Proves existence of lethal healthcare neglect in females in provinces of China
  • *Data not directly focusing on healthcare allocation, but significant due to large population-based studies exposing gender-based neglect of girls.

  • †Numbers not explicitly reported/census data sets.

  • ‡Number of eligible households, two separate cross-sectional time points.