Table 1

Included studies of the aetiology of sepsis in young infants

Year(s) of studyStudy locationHospital typeStudy typeInclusion criteria0–30 day-old infants, positive/total testedOlder infants, positive/total testedCommunity-acquired pathogens only
Anah et al, 2008352002–4Calabar, NigeriaTertiary hospitalRetrospective review of laboratory records363/717 (51%)Unclear what proportion of infections were nosocomial
Ayoola et al, 2003221998Ibadan, NigeriaTertiary hospitalProspectivePost-neonatal infants presenting with fever1–12 months old: 39/102 (38%)Yes
Al Zwaini, 2002342000–1Ramadi, IraqTertiary hospitalProspectiveClinical features of sepsis and a positive blood culture118/? (a total of 1331 newborns admitted during study period)Probably not all, included referred children
Darmstadt et al, 2009302004–6BangladeshCommunity surveillanceProspectiveClinical features of sepsis30/500 (6%)40% likely early onset sepsis
Kapoor et al, 2005252000–1Delhi, IndiaTertiary hospitalProspectiveClinical features of sepsis125/632 (20%)Probably not all, included referred children
Karki and Parija, 1999261999Dharan, NepalTertiary hospitalProspectiveClinical features of sepsis46/77 (60%)Yes
Kayange et al, 2010272009Mwanza, TanzaniaTertiary hospitalProspectiveClinical features indicative of sepsis149/300 (50%)Yes
Meremikwu et al, 2005231996–2002Calabar, NigeriaTertiary hospitalRetrospective review of laboratory recordsClinical features indicative of sepsis, or fever without a localised lesion271/533 (51%)1–12 months old: 113/252 (45%)Likely
Milledge et al, 2005121996–2001Blantyre, MalawiTertiary hospitalRetrospectiveClinical features of sepsis784/?Yes
Mugalu et al, 2006322002Mulago, UgandaTertiary hospitalProspectiveClinical features of sepsis110/193 (57%)Likely
Ojukwu et al, 2006332002–3Abakaliki, NigeriaTertiary hospitalProspectiveClinical features of sepsis33/138 (24%)Yes
Quiambao et al, 2007241994–2000Bohol Island, PhilippinesFirst-level referral hospitalProspectiveSevere pneumonia, suspected sepsis or meningitis22/424 (5%)0–60 days old: 12/343(3%)Yes
Sharma et al, 2002282001–2IndiaTertiary hospitalProspectiveFever or other clinical features of sepsis521/1534 (34%)1–12 months old: 194/1165Yes
Shitaye et al, 2010292006–7Addis Ababa, EthiopiaTertiary hospitalProspectiveClinical features of sepsis135/302 (45%)Mostly (98%) early onset sepsis
Sigaúque, 2009212001–6Manhica district, southern MozambiqueRural hospitalProspectiveAll admissions (bacteraemia)154/952 (16%)29 days–12 months old: 520/6892 (8%)Yes
Tsering et al, 2011362007–8Sikkim, IndiaTertiary hospitalProspectiveClinical features of sepsis80/363(22%)Not clear in all cases
Viswanathan, 2011132008–9Birbhum, IndiaRural hospitalProspectiveClinical features of sepsis77/?Likely mostly community acquired. Of 77 positive cultures, 45 were inborn babies and 32 were out-born
Waliullah et al, 2009312005–6BangladeshTertiary hospitalProspectiveClinical features of sepsis30/80 (38%)Unclear whether early or late onset
WHO Young Infant Study, 1999201993The Gambia, Ethiopia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, TanzaniaPrimary care facilities, secondary or tertiary hospitalsProspective multicentre studyClinical features of sepsis84/?0–90 days old: 167/4552 (4%)Yes, only results for early onset sepsis used, as it is unclear what proportion of late onset sepsis was community acquired