Table 3

Relationships between frequency of alcohol consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy and mean differences in teacher-rated SDQ and KS2 scores

Unadjusted (95% CI)p ValueAdjusted* (95% CI)p Value
Teacher SDQs
 Conduct problems (0–10)
  <1/week−0.01 (−0.10 to 0.08)0.8070.00 (−0.09 to 0.08)0.960
  ≥1/week0.04 (−0.08 to 0.15)0.528−0.05 (−0.17 to 0.07)0.388
 Hyperactivity/inattention (0–10)
  <1/week−0.09 (−0.23 to 0.06)0.236−0.02 (−0.16 to 0.12)0.750
  ≥1/week0.00 (−0.19 to 0.19)0.972−0.10 (−0.29 to 0.10)0.339
 Total problems (0–40)
  <1/week−0.22 (−0.53 to 0.09)0.167−0.06 (−0.37 to 0.26)0.731
  ≥1/week−0.07 (−0.49 to 0.35)0.215−0.45 (−0.89 to −0.01)0.043
Key Stage 2Unadjusted (95% CI)p ValueAdjusted† (95% CI)p Value
  <1/week0.90 (0.50 to 1.29)<0.0010.38 (−0.02 to 0.78)0.065
  ≥1/week0.60 (0.07 to 1.13)0.0260.45 (−0.11 to 1.01)0.117
  • *Adjusted for: maternal age, parity, highest level of maternal education, daily frequency of smoking, use of cannabis and/or other illicit drugs during the first trimester, home ownership, whether currently married, high scores (>12) on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and child gestational age, birth weight and gender.

  • †After additionally adjusting for highest level of paternal education.

  • SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.