Table 2

ORs and CIs of upper gastrointestinal complications in association with drugs*

DrugsCases (N=486)Controls (N=1930)Adjusted OR† (95% CI)
nn
Antibiotics1352422.3 (1.8 to 3.1)
Amoxicillin+clavulanic acid44772.3 (1.5 to 3.5)
Claritromicin17302.0 (1.0 to 3.8)
Amoxicillin16301.8 (0.9 to 3.4)
Cefaclor14241.7 (0.8 to 3.5)
Steroids871401.9 (1.4 to 2.7)
Oral steroids39302.9 (1.7 to 4.8)
Inhaled steroids24811.0 (0.6 to 1.7)
Oral+inhaled steroids20183.0 (1.5 to 5.9)
NSAIDs811212.9 (2.1 to 4.0)
Ibuprofen40513.7 (2.3 to 5.9)
Niflumic acid14231.6 (0.8 to 3.2)
Ketoprofen12232.6 (1.2 to 5.6)
Paracetamol1192942.0 (1.5 to 2.6)
Paracetamol+ibuprofen16213.1 (1.5 to 6.2)
Aspirin6122.5 (0.9 to 7.4)
Other drugs1867460.8 (0.7 to 1.1)
Total drug use3531042
  • *All drugs with at least 10 exposed in the control group.

  • †Adjusted for age, clinical centre and concomitant use of other drugs.

  • NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; UGIC, upper gastrointestinal complications.