Table 3

ORs from multivariable ordinal regression models of young people's pain in previous week*

Severity of painFrequency of pain
OR†(95% CI)p Value‡OR†(95% CI)p Value‡
Self-report of pain by young person (n=425)
 Girl2.1(1.5 to 3.0)1.9(1.3 to 2.7)
Emotional difficulties score (by quartile)0.0010.0002
 >1–31.4(0.9 to 2.3)1.3(0.8 to 2.2)
 >3–51.8(1.1 to 3.0)1.8(1.1 to 3.1)
 >5–103.1(1.7 to 5.6)3.5(1.9 to 6.3)
Parent-report of their childs pain (n=655)
Emotional difficulties score (by quartile)<0.0001<0.0001
 >1–31.7(1.2 to 2.4)1.5(1.1 to 2.2)
 >3–52.4(1.6 to 3.5)2.0(1.4 to 3.0)
 >5–104.2(2.7 to 6.6)4.1(2.6 to 6.4)
Walking ability (captured by gross motor function)<0.0001<0.0001
 I. Walks without limitation1.01.0
 II. Walks with limitation1.4(1.0 to 2.2)1.3(0.9 to 2.0)
 III. Walks with assistive devices1.5(0.9 to 2.4)1.6(1.0 to 2.5)
 IV. Unable to walk, limited self-mobility2.1(1.3 to 3.2)2.0(1.3 to 3.0)
 V. Unable to walk, severely limited self-mobility5.1(3.4 to 7.6)4.9(3.3 to 7.4)
  • *All models were stratified by region. Young people with missing data, either on pain outcomes or on factors included in the model, were excluded.

  • †ORs <1.0 indicate a higher level of pain in that group than in the reference group.

  • ‡p Values are from the likelihood ratio test statistic comparing models with and without the corresponding factor.