Table 2

Relationships between frequency of alcohol consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy and mean differences in parent-rated SDQ scores

Unadjusted (95% CI)p ValueAdjusted† (95% CI)p Valuep for gender interaction*
Whole sample
 Conduct problems (0–10)
  <1/week0.04 (−0.03 to 0.12)0.2560.06 (−0.02 to 0.14)0.1510.372
  ≥1/week0.06 (−0.04 to 0.16)0.2520.04 (−0.07 to 0.15)0.462
 Hyperactivity/inattention (0–10)
  <1/week0.13 (0.01 to 0.25)0.0280.11 (−0.01 to 0.23)0.0660.704
  ≥1/week0.15 (−0.01 to 0.31)0.0620.11 (−0.06 to 0.28)0.191
 Total problems (0–40)
  <1/week0.11 (−0.15 to 0.38)0.3910.13 (−0.14 to 0.40)0.3470.096
  ≥1/week0.18 (−0.17 to 0.54)0.3140.04 (−0.33 to 0.42)0.825
Boys
 Conduct problems (0–10)
  <1/week0.00 (−0.12 to 0.11)0.9630.02 (−0.10 to 0.13)0.787
  ≥1/week0.00 (−0.15 to 0.15)0.9850.02 (−0.14 to 0.18)0.786
 Hyperactivity/inattention (0–10)
  <1/week0.08 (−0.09 to 0.26)0.3390.09 (−0.09 to 0.27)0.331
  ≥1/week0.14 (−0.09 to 0.37)0.2380.14 (−0.11 to 0.39)0.262
 Total problems (0–40)
  <1/week−0.17 (−0.56 to 0.21)0.378−0.11 (−0.51 to 0.29)0.588
  ≥1/week−0.04 (−0.56 to 0.47)0.871−0.06 (−0.60 to 0.49)0.840
Girls
 Conduct problems (0–10)
  <1/week0.09 (−0.01 to 0.19)0.0810.10 (0.00 to 0.21)0.049
  ≥1/week0.12 (−0.02 to 0.25)0.0960.06 (−0.09 to 0.21)0.412
 Hyperactivity/inattention (0–10)
  <1/week0.17 (0.02 to 0.32)0.0290.14 (−0.02 to 0.30)0.089
  ≥1/week0.11 (−0.10 to 0.32)0.2890.07 (−0.15 to 0.30)0.520
 Total problems (0–40)
  <1/week0.39 (0.05 to 0.74)0.0270.38 (0.01 to 0.74)0.044
  ≥1/week0.36 (−0.12 to 0.84)0.1440.13 (−0.39 to 0.65)0.623
  • Reference group—no drinking in 1st trimester.

  • *In unadjusted model.

  • †Adjusted for: maternal age, parity, highest level of maternal education, daily frequency of smoking, use of cannabis and/or other illicit drugs during the first trimester, home ownership, whether currently married, high scores (>12) on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and child gestational age, birth weight and gender.

  • SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.