Table 1

Characteristics among 1255 mother–child pairs participating in Project Viva. Values are given as mean (SD) unless stated otherwise

Vaginal delivery (n=971)Caesarean delivery (n=284)p Value
Maternal characteristics
Age, years32.3 (5.2)33.1 (4.5)0.01
Race/ethnicity, n (%)0.55
 White712 (73.6)198 (69.7)
 Black114 (11.8)39 (13.7)
 Hispanic59 (6.1)17 (6.0)
 Other83 (8.6)30 (10.6)
College graduate, n (%)680 (70.3)207 (72.9)0.39
Yearly household income >US$70 000, n (%)588 (65.3)168 (60.9)0.18
Smoking during pregnancy, n (%)0.96
 Former199 (21.0)57 (20.8)
 During pregnancy102 (10.8)28 (10.2)
 Never647 (68.3)189 (69.0)
Prepregnancy BMI, kg/m224.3 (4.8)25.8 (6.0)0.0001
Gestational weight gain, kg15.6 (5.1)15.7 (6.0)0.75
Paternal BMI, kg/m226.2 (3.8)27.1 (4.0)0.001
Maternal glucose tolerance status, n (%)0.07
 Gestational diabetes36 (3.8)15 (5.3)
 Impaired glucose tolerance26 (2.7)15 (5.3)
 Transient hyperglycaemia91 (9.5)21 (7.5)
 Normal808 (84.1)230 (81.9)
Child characteristics
Female sex, n (%)480 (49.4)136 (47.9)0.65
Gestational age at birth, weeks39.7 (1.4)39.6 (1.5)0.46
Birth weight, kg3.50 (0.50)3.56 (0.56)0.11
Birth weight for gestational age z-score, units0.18 (0.94)0.32 (1.01)0.04
Breastfeeding initiation838 (89.5)224 (83.0)0.003
Breastfeeding duration, months6.7 (4.5)5.6 (4.4)0.0004
Timing of solid food introduction, n (%)0.90
 <4 months127 (15.5)37 (15.5)
 4–5 months572 (69.6)169 (70.7)
 ≥6 months123 (15)33 (13.8)
Energy intake at age 2 years, kcal/day1536 (448)1523 (409)0.69
TV viewing at age 2 years, h/day1.4 (1.2)1.4 (1.1)0.67
Age 3 characteristics
Age at 3-year visit, months39.5 (4.6)39.1 (3.9)0.19
BMI, kg/m216.4 (1.5)16.8 (1.6)0.0003
BMI z-score, units0.39 (1.00)0.67 (1.07)0.0001
BMI category, n (%)<.0001
 <85th percentile724 (75.7)184 (65.5)
 85th to <95th percentile160 (16.7)53 (18.9)
 ≥95th percentile72 (7.5)44 (15.7)
Sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds, mm16.5 (4.2)17.5 (4.7)0.002
Ratio of subscapular to triceps skinfolds, units64.3 (15.7)65.2 (15.7)0.41
Height, cm97.5 (4.8)97.7 (4.5)0.60
  • p Values are from χ2 for categorical characteristics and t-test for continuous characteristics.