Table 4

Comparison of the characteristics of this FASD and non-FASD series

n FAS (%)n FASD (%)n non-FASD (%)
Mean age at referral (years)3.15.55.1
Definite history of alcohol exposure9 (56.2)14 (34.1)13 (33.3)
Units of alcohol/week18–15714–15728–140
Abnormal prenatal scan7 (63.6)7 (38.8)14 (56)
At birth
 OFC 0.4th–9th centile5 (100)5 (71.4)6 (66.6)
 Weight 0.4th–9th centile11 (78.6)23 (67.6)20 (59)
 Special care required8 (61.5)15 (60)15 (53.6)
 Withdrawal symptoms4 (40)12 (60)12 (54.5)
At referral
 Intellectual disability7 (77)32 (86.4)19 (54.2)
 Behaviour problems7 (77)32 (84.2)22 (62.8)
 Growth failure12 (75)18 (43.9)15 (40.7)
 Microcephaly12 (75)21 (51.2)20 (52.6)
 Speech difficulties8 (61)22 (68.7)15 (60)
Dysmorphisms
 Thin upper lip13 (86.6)27 (77)18 (50)
 Short palpebral fissures9 (82)12 (36.3)14 (40)
 Lip–philtrum score 4 or 58 (66.6)14 (53.8)10 (38.4)
 Epicanthic folds7 (58.3)10 (33.3)12 (33.3)
 Clinodactyly7 (53.8)11 (53.5)2 (5.4)
 Anteverted nares5 (41.6)10 (32.2)16 (43.2)
 Nail hypoplasia5 (38)8 (22.2)4 (10.8)
 Hockey stick creases3 (23)6 (17.6)1 (2.7)
 Railroad-track ear000
 Associated malformations3 (18.75)11 (26.8)16 (41)
  • FAS, fetal alcohol syndrome; FASD, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; OFC, occipital-frontal circumference.