Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 916 New Zealand children.

Study site, %
Age of the child at time of survey, median (IQR), years10.6 (9.9–11.2)
Male, %52
Child's ethnicity, %
New Zealand deprivation index, mean (SD)4.6 (2.8)
Maternal age at birth, median (IQR), years31 (28–34)
Any maternal smoking during pregnancy, %18
Gestational age at birth, median (IQR), weeks40 (39–41)
Birth weight, mean (SD), kg3.6 (0.5)
Ever breastfeeding at 3 months of age, %98
Duration of exclusive breastfeeding, median (IQR), months9.0 (4.5–13.0)
History of wheat or gluten allergy in the family, %
 At least one family member (mother, father, siblings)3.0
Prior testing for coeliac disease, %6.6
Doctor-diagnosed lactose intolerance, %4.4
History of gluten avoidance in the child, %5.2