Table 3

Environmental factors reported to be associated with ADHD

Maternally related prenatal risksAlcohol in pregnancy
Smoking in pregnancy
Drug use in pregnancyMaternal stress in pregnancy
Maternal health in pregnancy (obesity)
Pregnancy and birth complicationsBleeding in pregnancy
Protracted/complicated delivery
Prematurity/low birth weight/intrauterine growth restriction
Low APGAR score
External agentsInfections
Exposure to lead and other toxins eg, PCB
Nutritional factors
Psychosocial adversities
  • ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; PCB, polychlorinated biphenyl.