Table 2

Odds of socioemotional difficulties data and regression coefficients for cognitive test scores at age 5 by family income

%Model AModel BModel C
Socioemotional difficulties (n=13 603)
 Richest2.03
 Band 24.001.84 (1.14 to 2.97)1.72 (1.06 to 2.77)1.49 (0.92 to 2.40)
 Band 36.432.72 (1.76 to 4.23)2.47 (1.59 to 3.84)2.00 (1.29 to 3.10)
 Band 411.244.40 (2.89 to 6.69)3.52 (2.33 to 5.31)2.53 (1.67 to 3.83)
 Poorest15.885.82 (3.73 to 9.07)4.44 (2.86 to 6.90)3.03 (1.95 to 4.71)
 Don't know or refused11.985.21 (3.23 to 8.39)3.97 (2.49 to 6.32)2.78 (1.73 to 4.48)
MeanModel AModel BModel C
Verbal ability (n=13 537)
 Richest59.85
 Band 257.66−1.86 (−2.73 to −0.99)−1.71 (−2.58 to −0.85)−1.68 (−2.54 to −0.81)
 Band 356.13−2.79 (−3.64 to −1.95)−2.57 (−3.40 to −1.75)−2.49 (−3.31 to −1.66)
 Band 453.09−4.86 (−5.74 to −3.99)−4.31 (−5.16 to −3.46)−4.18 (−5.03 to −3.33)
 Poorest51.17−6.19 (−7.15 to −5.22)−5.49 (−6.44 to −4.55)−5.35 (−6.30 to −4.40)
 Don't know or refused54.03−4.24 (−5.31 to −3.17)−3.55 (−4.63 to −2.48)−3.44 (−4.51 to −2.37)
Non-verbal ability (n=13 533)
 Richest58.44
 Band 256.60−1.62 (−2.35 to −0.89)−1.56 (−2.28 to −0.83)−1.54 (−2.26 to −0.81)
 Band 355.62−2.36 (−3.12 to −1.60)−2.26 (−3.02 to −1.51)−2.20 (−2.95 to −1.44)
 Band 454.54−3.12 (−4.02 to −2.23)−2.87 (−3.76 to −1.99)−2.75 (−3.64 to −1.87)
 Poorest53.63−3.76 (−4.67 to −2.85)−3.44 (−4.35 to −2.52)−3.27 (−4.18 to −2.36)
 Don't know or refused55.89−2.06 (−3.06 to −1.07)−1.76 (−2.75 to −0.77)−1.64 (−2.63 to −0.65)
Spatial ability (n=13 488)
 Richest53.58
 Band 252.39−1.04 (−1.72 to −0.36)−0.97 (−1.65 to −0.29)−0.95 (−1.62 to −0.28)
 Band 351.36−1.90 (−2.68 to −1.11)−1.79 (−2.57 to −1.02)−1.73 (−2.51 to −0.95)
 Band 449.39−3.55 (−4.31 to −2.79)−3.21 (−3.94 to −2.47)−3.10 (−3.85 to −2.35)
 Poorest48.26−4.41 (−5.24 to −3.57)−4.03 (−4.86 to −3.20)−3.92 (−4.75 to −3.08)
 Don't know or refused51.32−1.78 (−2.75 to −0.82)−1.39 (−2.35 to −0.44)−1.28 (−2.24 to −0.32)
  • Model A adjusts for: gender, child is firstborn, languages spoken in the home, mother's age at time of birth.

  • Model B additionally adjusts for: a parent has basic skills difficulties, someone reads stories to the child, help with reading, help with writing, help with numbers, telling stories to the child, visits to the library, musical activities, draws, paints or makes things, regular bedtimes, regular mealtimes.

  • Model C additionally adjusts for: maternal K6 score, discipline strategies, mother's parenting competence, whether the mother feels close to the child.

  • Models also adjust for child's age.