Appendix 3

Socioemotional difficulties (%) and cognitive test scores (means) by demographic characteristics, home learning, family routine and psychosocial environment

Age 3Age 5
Socioemotional difficulties (n=11 562)School readiness (n=10 930)Verbal ability (n=11 467)Socioemotional difficulties (n=13 603)Verbal ability (n=13 537)Non-verbal ability (n=13 533)Spatial ability (n=13 488)
Gender
 Girls6.6108.352.86.855.556.251.7
 Boys9.9104.650.010.054.955.050.1
Demographic characteristics
 Child is firstborn
  Yes8.0109.453.08.456.755.951.1
  No8.5104.250.28.554.155.450.7
 Languages spoken in the home
  English only8.1106.651.78.255.955.651.0
  Any others spoken12.2103.345.511.947.155.449.0
 Mother's age at time of birth
  35+4.9108.152.35.456.956.651.8
  30–345.5108.952.55.356.956.551.7
  25–297.8106.451.67.555.555.551.1
  20–2415.2101.748.914.951.954.249.3
  13–1920.098.847.616.551.053.348.3
Sweep 2 (age 3)
 Family income at 3 years
  Richest2.4114.053.9
  Band 23.3111.253.7
  Band 35.9108.052.7
  Band 411.1103.750.0
  Poorest16.499.447.6
  Don't know or refused9.7104.251.0
Home learning
 A parent has basic skills difficulties
  No7.4107.151.77.555.755.951.2
  Yes14.6102.249.214.152.654.049.3
 Someone read stories to the child
  Every day6.2109.353.0
  1–6 days per week11.5101.548.6
  Less often21.793.644.9
 Visits to the library
  At least weekly6.6109.552.9
  Less often8.4106.251.3
 Help with the alphabet
  At least weekly7.9107.551.9
  Less often9.2103.950.4
 Help with numbers/counting
  At least weekly8.0106.751.5
  Less often12.5102.649.8
 Learning songs, poems and rhymes
  At least weekly8.0106.851.6
  Less often13.5100.748.1
 Does drawing and painting
  At least weekly7.9106.651.5
  Less often16.9102.449.2
Family routines
 Regular bedtimes
  Usually/always6.9107.652.0
  Rarely/never15.3101.048.6
 Regular mealtimes
  Usually/always7.5107.051.6
  Rarely/never20.298.448.3
Age 3Age 5
Socioemotional difficulties (n=11 562)School readiness (n=10 930)Verbal ability (n=11 467)Socioemotional difficulties (n=13 603)Verbal ability (n=13 537)Non-verbal ability (n=13 533)Spatial ability (n=13 488)
Psychosocial environment
 Maternal K6
  Score <96.6107.051.7
  Score ≥926.2100.348.2
 Child–parent relationship (Pianta) scale
  Normal4.3107.251.8
  High34.6101.248.7
 Discipline strategies score*
  Normal6.2106.851.6
  High25.6103.349.8
 Parent–child items from HOME Inventory score*
  Normal7.1107.452.0
  High18.795.646.4
 Mother's parenting competence
  Better than average5.3107.952.1
  Average or worse12.8104.350.4
 Family rules
  Lots of rules7.9107.351.5
  Not many rules8.8105.351.1
  It varies8.0107.151.8
 Enforcement of rules
  Strictly enforced6.8107.852.0
  Not very strictly enforced12.0102.749.7
  It varies8.1106.951.8
Sweep 3 (age 5)
 Family income at 5 years
  Richest2.059.958.453.6
  Band 24.057.756.652.4
  Band 36.456.155.651.4
  Band 411.253.154.549.4
  Poorest15.951.253.648.3
  Don't know or refused12.054.055.951.3
Home learning
 Someone reads stories to the child
  Every day6.156.456.051.4
  1–6 days per week10.654.055.350.4
  Less often24.249.553.247.8
 Help with reading
  At least weekly8.255.355.650.9
  Less often20.551.654.949.6
 Help with writing
  At least weekly7.955.455.650.9
  Less often12.354.155.350.8
 Help with numbers
  At least weekly8.255.355.650.9
  Less often10.754.455.451.0
 Telling stories to the child
  At least weekly7.455.755.850.9
  Less often10.754.355.150.8
 Visits to the library
  At least weekly8.755.755.951.1
  Less often8.455.255.650.9
 Musical activities
  At least weekly8.255.455.651.0
  Less often11.553.155.350.0
Age 3Age 5
Socioemotional difficulties (n=11 562)School readiness (n=10 930)Verbal ability (n=11 467)Socioemotional difficulties (n=13 603)Verbal ability (n=13 537)Non-verbal ability (n=13 533)Spatial ability (n=13 488)
 Draws, paints or makes things
  At least weekly7.855.555.751.2
  Less often10.554.355.250.1
Family routines
 Regular bedtimes
  Usually/always7.355.655.751.2
  Rarely/never19.351.254.148.3
 Regular mealtimes
  Usually/always7.555.555.751.1
  Rarely/never22.150.753.547.9
Psychosocial environment
 Maternal K6
  Score <96.355.655.851.1
  Score ≥928.051.653.648.6
 Discipline strategies score*
  Normal5.955.455.851.2
  High21.954.354.449.4
 Mother's parenting competence
  Better than average5.555.856.051.3
  Average or worse12.954.355.150.3
 Whether the mother felt close to the child
  Extremely close6.455.855.851.2
  Less close13.353.955.250.2
  • * High scores indicate unfavourable circumstances.

  • HOME, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment.