Table 1

Interventions used and their evidence for efficacy

InterventionRationaleRange of strategies usedNo of Studies involving this intervention
Patient aspectsDisease specific education
  • Improve understanding

  • Improve self-management skills

  • One-to-one teaching

  • Printed material

  • Adolescent-friendly websites

  • Group sessions (also providing peer support)

5 (4 successful)
Generic education/skills training
  • Improve self-management skills

  • Improve ability to navigate adult healthcare system

  • Increase autonomy

  • Internet-based skills training

  • One to one teaching

3 (2 successful)
Staff aspectsNamed transition co-ordinator
  • Improve continuity of care

  • Ensure structured transition process

  • Transition planning/patient preparation

  • Single point of contact for patient queries

  • Attending each clinic appointment

  • Providing emotional and psychological support

  • Administrative only (rebooking missed appointments)

3 (2 successful)
Joint paediatric/adult clinic
  • Gradual introduction to adult services

  • Improve continuity of care

  • Ensure structured transition process

  • Improve information sharing between services

  • Attendance of staff from both services at one or more clinics, within either paediatric or adult services

8 (3 successful)
Service aspectsSeparate young adult clinic
  • Young people may feel less out of place than in general clinics, where many patients in the waiting room may be older people

  • Young adult clinics held on separate days from general clinics

4 (3 successful)
Out of hours phone support
  • To provide support at times convenient to young patients

  • Telephone advice on management of complications/self-management

1 (successful)
Enhanced follow-up
  • Known increased rate of failed attendance during adolescence

  • Telephone calls to encourage those who failed to attend to return

3 (2 successful)