Table 1

Randomised controlled trials of measles vaccine given to African girls at 9–10 months of age; all the controls had been immunised against measles at 4–5 months of age

StudyAge followed (months)Vaccines*Measles vaccineControl vaccineReduction in mortality (95% CI)
Bissau EZ12610–60M v PN=91: 11/244.3 (4.5%)N=85: 7/268.6 (2.6%)–72% (–425% to 39%)
Bissau EZ22610–48M v PN=82: 7/161.5 (4.3%)N=86: 17/157.1 (10.8%)60% (–2% to 86%)
Gambia2710–36M v PN=45: 0/74.8 (0%)N=51: 1/82.9 (1.2%)–4222% to 100%
Senegal2810–60MDPY v DPYN=311: 19/863.3 (2.2%)N=474: 64/1342.2 (4.8%)54% (22% to 74%)
Sudan2910–36M v NN=151: 7/327.7 (2.1%)N=80: 9/169.1 (5.3%)60% (–21% to 87%)
Total47% (23% to 63%)
Twin study350–17M v D2/5 (154)=0.4 (0.04–2.4)§22/3 (164)=7.3 (2.2–38.3)§p=0.001
  • Number of girls: died/person-years (deaths per 100 person-years).

  • * Vaccines: D, diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis; M, measles; N, Neisseria meningitidis polysaccharide; P, inactivated polio; Y, yellow fever.

  • 100 × (1−measles mortality/control mortality).

  • 100 × (1−Mantel–Haenszel combined mortality ratio), test of homogeneity p=0.14, Stata version 10.

  • § Female deaths/male deaths (number of female−male twin pairs)=ratio (95% CI); not randomised, but unbiased.