Table 4

Definitions of clinical conditions associated with HIV infection in the study population

Clinical eventClinical definition
Chest infectionLower respiratory tract infection—severe (including pneumonia and bronchiolitis): cough with fast breathing, chest indrawing, nasal flaring, wheezing and grunting. Crackles or consolidation on auscultation
Persistent feverDocumented axillary temperature greater than 37.2°C lasting for a month or more
Chronic ear infection (otitis media)Painful swollen eardrum and/or ear discharge lasting for 14 days or more
UnderweightWeight for age Z score less than or equal to –2 SD (2006 WHO Child Growth reference standards). Severely underweight is defined as a weight for age Z score less than or equal to –3 SD but for the purpose of this study analysis both underweight and severely underweight children were grouped together as ‘underweight’
WastingVisible severe wasting of muscles
LymphadenopathySwollen or enlarged lymph nodes greater than 1 cm in neck axilla or groin
Oral candidiasis (oral thrush)After 6–8 weeks of age: creamy white to yellow soft small plaques which can be scraped off (pseudomembranous form) or red patches on tongue, palate or lining of mouth usually painful or tender (erythematous form)