Table 2

Demographics and early treatment

Controls (n=21)Early oedema (n=15)Late oedema (n=17)p
 Age (years)10.2±4.99.9±4.69.2±4.70.82
 Sex (male %)8 (38)7 (47)8 (47)0.80
 New diabetes (%)11 (52)9 (60)9 (53)0.86
 Marcin score at presentation1 0±0.73.6±0.91.3±0.5<0.001
 Worst Marcin score1.2±0.8*3.7±1.03.7±0.9<0.001
Biochemical and osmolar-based variables
 Glucose (mmol/l)36.5±14.437.2±10.832.1 ±10.40.43
 Serum sodium (mmol/l)133±5130±6134±60.16
 Serum potassium (mmol/l)4.7±0.94.8±0.94.9±1.10.80
 Urea (mmol/l)8.2±3.88.6±5.38.8±4.10.91
 Serum creatinine (μmol/l)102±4792±5498±320.82
 Effective osmolality (mOsml/kg H2O)302±18296±21299±160.61
 Glucose-corrected sodium (mmol/l)142±7139±8141±70.52
Venous acid–base variables
 Arterial pH6.94±0.056.93±0.116.99±0.070.06
 Arterial PCO2 (kPa)1.6±0.71.3±0.91.8±0.90.30
 Arterial HCO3 (mmol/l)2.5±1.12.0±1.23.2±1.70.06
 Arterial base excess (mmol/l)−26.6±1.4−27.3±2.1−25.3±1.90.007
 Anion gap (mmol/l)34.3±3.035.5±5.935.7±5.00.60
 Initial insulin rate (units/kg/h)0.09±0.020.11±0.030.08±0.020.13
 4 h fluid (ml/kg)23±1033±1436±180.02
 4 h urine output (ml/kg)5.8±2.25.7±2.43.6±2.10.008
 4 h net fluid balance (ml/kg)18.7±9.527.8±14.732.1±18.20.02
 Mechanical ventilation (%)0 (0)4 (27)7 (41)0.001
 Time to PICU (h)6.4±2.27.4±3.312.9±5.4<0.001
  • Plus–minus values are mean±SD. Marcin scores were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Insulin rate and time to PICU were non-normal, thus were compared after log transformation.

  • * p<0.01 versus early oedema;

  • p<0.05 versus late oedema;

  • p<0.01 versus late oedema.

  • PICU, paediatric intensive care unit.