Table 2

Long-term outcome comparisons at child age 3 years

Intervention arm (I)Control arm (C)Unadjusted meanAdjusted mean difference (I−C)
OutcomeMean (SD)NMean (SD)NDifferenceEstimate95% CIp valueICC
Child behaviour
 Externalising raw score11.4 (7.1)25912.4 (7.6)330−0.9−0.8−2.2 to 0.60.260.02
 Internalising raw score6.4 (4.8)2597.1 (5.7)330−0.7−0.6−1.5 to 0.30.190
Parenting
 Unreasonable expectations37.3 (10.9)25939.9 (10.2)329−2.5−3.1−4.9 to −1.40.0010.01
 Warm nurturing53.7 (10.5)25953.3 (10.9)3300.41.1−0.7 to 2.90.240
 Harsh discipline36.9 (8.0)25937.9 (9.1)330−0.7−0.9−2.6 to 0.70.260.04
Maternal mental health
 Depression3.4 (5.0)2593.6 (5.1)330−0.2−0.1−0.9 to 0.70.820
 Anxiety1.8 (3.0)2591.8 (3.1)330−0.1−0.1−0.6 to 0.40.770
 Stress8.9 (6.4)2589.4 (6.6)330−0.5−0.7−1.7 to 0.40.210
  • Sample sizes for adjusted analyses range from 310 to 311 in the intervention arm and 227 to 228 in the control arm. The a priori potential baseline confounders included child's gender, mother's education level, household income, socio-economic disadvantage score, child's temperament status and whether or not the mother was depressed, anxious or stressed.

  • ICC, intracluster correlation coefficient for the outcome pooled across trial arms (not adjusted for potential confounders).