Table 1

Demographics, key findings based on CHALICE criteria, GCS, CT findings and neurosurgical intervention (n=1065)

DemographicsGender (male)67363.1
Age (years)Mean 5.1 yearsRange 8 days to
Median 3.0 years16 years 10 months
Metropolitan address100193.9
Head injury outcomesGCS=1586981.6
GCS ≤13827.7
Admission rate30929.0
CT scanning carried out20719.4
CT positive findings*Skull fracture only (non-depressed)343.2
Depressed skull fracture60.6
Skull fracture and intracranial injury161.2
Intracranial injury breakdown
 Epidural haematoma50.5
 Intraparietal haemorrhage60.6
 Tympanic membrane rupture10.1
 Cerebral oedema30.3
 Subarachnoid haematoma10.1
 Subdural haematoma131.2
Skull x-ray carried out20.2
Skull x-ray findingsSkull fracture10.1
Neurosurgical interventionCraniotomy70.7
Elevation of fracture60.6
Insertion of drainage50.5
CHALICE criteriaLOC >5 min201.7
Amnesia >5 min928.7
Abnormal drowsiness19318.1
≥3 Vomits777.2
Suspicion of NAI302.8
Seizure (no epilepsy)282.6
GCS <14706.6
GCS <15 and <12 months635.9
Suspect penetrating/depressed skull50.5
Signs of basilar skull fracture90.8
Focal neurology343.2
Bruise >5 cm282.6
High-speed accident595.5
Fall >3 m252.3
High-speed injury from projectile272.5
  • * CT findings – some patients had more than one intracranial injury.

  • Neurosurgical intervention – some patients had more than one procedure.

  • For details see figure 1.

  • CHALICE, children's head injury algorithm for the prediction of important clinical events; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; LOC, loss of consciousness; NAI, non-accidental injury.