Table 2 Summary of studies on epistaxis in childhood
Authors (year)Type of studyCountryStudy population denominatorNumber of childrenAgeCauses
Tomkinson et al (1997)1All age population-based series of hospital admissionsWales6885140<5 yearsOnly limited information on children
Garcia Callejo et al (1998)2Case series of hospital presentationsSpainNot given58Not stated3/39 cases of mild epistaxis had coagulation disorder compared with 11/19 severe cases
Sandoval et al (2002)3Case series of referrals to a haematology clinicUSANot given17815–219 monthsOne third of the series had a recognisable coagulation disorder
Makura et al (2002)4Case series from the emergency department of a large children’s hospitalEnglandNot given88Not stated85 no cause found. 3 had coagulation disorder. 17 had associated URTI
Brown and BerkowitzCase series of hospital admissions to an otolaryngology service in a tertiary paediatric hospitalAustraliaNot given141.9–18.3 years4 associated URTI. 7 no trigger identified. 1 case trauma. 6 referred to haematology with abnormal clotting screen but no coagulation disorder confirmed
(2004)5
Pallin et al (2005)6Representative sample of emergency departments in the USAUS4 503 000701 692All agesIncidence of epistaxis for children under 10 years was 4 per 1000 ED visits. Only limited information on children. 17% of whole series were traumatic
McIntosh et al (2007)7Population-based study of hospital admissions and emergency departments in children aged <2 yearsScotland16<2 years8 cases associated with trauma. 4 cases thrombocytopaenia. 2 with URTI
  • ED, emergency department; URTI, upper respiratory tract infection.