Table 5 Wessex-controlled trial subgroup: effect of birth in a period with universal newborn screening (UNS) on reading and communication z scores in children with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) at primary school age
Z scores‡Born in periods with/without UNS
NoGroup mean* z score‡ (SD)Unadjusted* mean difference (95% CI) (a−b)p ValueAdjusted† mean difference (95% CI)p Value
With UNSWithout UNSWith UNS (a)Without UNS (b)
WORD aggregate reading2120−0.64 (1.30)−1.15 (1.14)0.51 (−0.26 to 1.29)0.190.58 (0.026 to 1.13)0.04
VABS communication scale2119−0.42 (−1.30)−0.74 (1.16)0.32 (−0.47 to 1.11)0.410.52 (−0.21 to 1.24)0.16
  • *Adjusted only for age at assessment.

  • †Adjusted, in a linear regression model, for severity of PCHI, maternal educational qualifications and Ravens Coloured Progressive Matrices (non-verbal ability) score.

  • ‡Negative scores indicate that scores were lower than those seen in the normally hearing comparison group.1

  • VABS, Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales; WORD, Weschler Objective Reading Dimensions.