Table 4 Whole study sample: effect of early confirmation of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) on reading and communication z scores in children with PCHI at primary school age
Age at confirmation of PCHI
NoGroup mean* z score‡ (SD)Unadjusted* mean difference (95% CI)p ValueAdjusted† mean difference (95% CI)p Value
⩽9 months>9 months⩽9 months>9 months
WORD reading ability
    Basic reading (x)4557−0.54 (1.18)−1.02 (1.24)0.45 (−0.03 to 0.93)0.0640.55 (0.17 to 0.93)0.005
    Reading comprehension (y)4355−0.71 (1.18)−1.09 (1.16)0.38 (−0.10 to 0.85)0.120.48 (0.09 to 0.86)0.016
    Aggregate (x + y)/24557−0.65 (1.14)−1.10 (1.21)0.43 (−0.04 to 0.89)0.070.51 (0.15 to 0.87)0.006
VABS communication scale4454−0.13 (1.16)−0.65 (1.33)0.53 (0.02 to 1.03)0.0420.56 (0.12 to 1.00)0.013
  • *Adjusted only for age at assessment.

  • †Adjusted, in a linear regression model, for severity of PCHI, maternal educational qualifications and Ravens Coloured Progressive Matrices (non-verbal ability) score.

  • ‡Negative scores indicate that scores were lower than those seen in the normally hearing comparison group.1

  • VABS, Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales; WORD, Weschler Objective Reading Dimensions.