Table 3 Post-test and follow-up comparisons on language abilities
Intervention group, n = 24Waiting group, n = 23LN group, n = 36ANOVAComparison of intervention and waiting groupComparison of intervention and LN groupComparison of waiting and LN group
Mean (SD)95% CI‡Mean (SD)95% CIMean (SD)95% CIF value§p Valuet Scorep Value¶d**t Scorep Valuet Scorep Value
Post-test
    Age in months30.5 (0.9)31.0 (1.0)30.6 (0.6)F(2,80) = 1.90.156−1.50.134−0.20.8441.60.115
    ELFRA-2 (parent report)*
        Vocabulary140.7 (57.3)117 to 16596.3 (64.0)69 to 124219.5 (26.8)210 to 229F(2,80) = 48.1<0.0012.50.0160.73−6.3<0.001−8.8<0.001
        Syntax22.9 (7.1)20 to 2613.5 (9.0)10 to 1740.2 (8.9)37 to 43F(2,80) = 76.3<0.0014.0<0.0011.16−8.4<0.001−11.2<0.001
        Morphology7.0 (4.2)5 to 94.0 (4.1)2 to 613.9 (2.8)13 to 15F(2,80) = 58.5<0.0012.50.0170.72−7.0<0.001−10.2<0.001
    SETK-2†
        Word production49.4 (10.2)45 to 5441.0 (12.4)36 to 4656.9 (8.4)54 to 60F(2,80) = 17.3<0.0012.50.0160.74−3.00.005−5.4<0.001
        Sentence production41.0 (5.3)39 to 4335.3 (5.8)33 to 3856.8 (11.1)53 to 61F(2,80) = 52.2<0.0013.50.0011.03−7.4<0.001−9.7<0.001
Follow-up
    Age in months37.3 (1.3)36 to 4038.0 (1.7)36 to 4237.4 (1.2)36 to 40F(2,80) = 2.10.125−1.60.11400.9671.70.090
    ELFRA-2 (parent report)*
        Vocabulary216.9 (36.9)91 to 260178.0 (65.6)18 to 260246.0 (16.5)240 to 252F(2,80) = 19.2<0.0012.50.0180.73−3.60.001−4.9<0.001
        Syntax43.3 (12.0)21 to 5934.4 (18.9)0 to 6556.6 (4.0)55 to 58F(2,80) = 24.7<0.0011.90.0620.67−5.2<0.001−5.5<0.001
        Morphology12.5 (3.3)4 to 169.2 (5.7)0 to 1615.5 (1.0)15 to 16F(2,80) = 22.6<0.0012.40.0210.71−4.4<0.001−5.3<0.001
    SETK 3–5†
        Encoding Semantic51.6 (11.2)32 to 8143.9 (9.1)27 to 6260.2 (10.4)57 to 64F(2,80) = 17.8<0.0012.60.0130.75−3.00.005−6.3<0.001
        Information, ESI
        Plural Forming, PF48.0 (9.3)30 to 6745.5 (10.0)30 to 6257.1 (8.9)54 to 60F(2,80) = 13.0<0.0010.90.3760.23−3.8<0.001−4.5<0.001
  • *Raw score; †t score normative means are 50 (SD 10); ‡95% confidence interval; §ANOVA over all three groups; ¶single sided t tests; **effect size, Cohen’s d.31

  • ELFRA-2, parent report screening questionnaire for early identification of children at risk; LN, language normal; SETK 3–5, [Developmental language test for 3- to 5-year-old children].