Table 2 Prevalence of significant (p<0.01) risk factors for eczema at 1 year of age in the univariable analysis: the Infants of Western Sweden Study
Risk factorEczemaNo eczemaOR (95% CI)p Value
n (%)n (%)
Paternal asthma108 (10.5)280 (7.2)1.51 (1.20 to 1.91)0.001
Maternal rhinoconjunctivitis320 (31.3)833 (21.5)1.66 (1.42 to 1.93)<0.001
Paternal rhinoconjunctivitis287 (28.0)876 (22.6)1.33 (1.14 to 1.56)<0.001
Sibling with rhinoconjunctivitis68 (6.6)179 (4.6)1.47 (1.10 to 1.96)0.009
Maternal eczema392 (38.3)917 (3.7)2.00 (1.73 to 2.31)<0.001
Paternal eczema214 (20.9)569 (14.7)1.53 (1.29 to 1.83)<0.001
Sibling with eczema209 (20.4)436 (11.3)2.02 (1,69 to 2.43)<0.001
Living in an urban area631 (62.5)2134 (56.0)1.31 (1.14 to 1.51)<0.001
Maternal medication during pregnancy328 (32.2)1066 (27.7)1.24 (1.07 to 1.44)0.005
Light sleeper at 6 months321 (31.3)1016 (26.2)1.28 (1.10 to 1.49)0.001
Troubled sleep at 6 months150 (14.6)434 (11.2)1.36 (1.11 to 1.66)0.003
3+ Awakenings per night215 (21.8)657 (17.7)1.30 (1.09 to 1.54)0.003
Male gender574 (56.1)1979 (51.1)1.22 (1.06 to 1.40)0.005
Dog at home123 (11.9)599 (15.3)0.75 (0.61 to 0.92)0.006
Bird at home12 (1.2)100 (2.6)0.45 (0.25 to 0.82)0.009
Age at introduction of fish<0.001
    0–2 Months6 (0.7)15 (0.4)1.1 (0.4 to 2.9)0.83
    3–5 Months194 (21.3)750 (20.9)0.7 (0.6 to 0.9)0.003
    6–8 Months462 (50.8)2142 (59.6)0.6 (0.5 to 0.7)<0.001
    9–12 Months248 (27.3)689 (19.2)1 (Ref)Ref
Type of fat on bread0.003
    Dairy674 (67.2)2794 (72.3)1 (Ref)Ref
    Margarine280 (27.9)878 (22.7)1.32 (1.13 to 1.55)0.001
    Nil49 (4.9)191 (4.9)1.06 (0.77 to 1.47)0.71
Frequency of fish consumption<0.001
    3+ Times a week54 (5.3)195 (5.0)1 (Ref)Ref
    1–3 Times a week584 (57.0)2400 (61.6)0.88 (0.64 to 1.20)0.42
    1–3 Times a month247 (24.1)1038 (26.6)0.86 (0.62 to 1.20)0.37
    A few times a year57 (5.6)156 (4.0)1.32 (0.86 to 2.02)0.20
    Never83 (8.1)110 (2.8)2.73 (1.80 to 4.13)<0.001
Usually eats lean fish723 (79.3)2918 (82.5)0.81 (0.68 to 0.97)0.025
Frequency of lactic acid (yoghurt, fermented<0.001
vegetables, etc) in diet
    3+ Times a week497 (48.8)1986 (51.1)1 (Ref)Ref
    1–3 Times a week257 (25.2)1173 (30.2)0.88 (0.75 to 1.04)0.12
    1–3 Times a month110 (10.8)419 (10.8)1.05 (0.83 to 1.32)0.69
    A few times a year29 (2.8)131 (3.4)0.89 (0.59 to 1.34)0.56
    Never125 (12.3)174 (4.5)2.87 (2.24 to 3.69)<0.001
Troubled sleep at 12 months203 (19.7)611 (15.6)1.32 (1.11 to 1.58)0.002
  • Variables with p between 0.01 and 0.05 were: maternal asthma, air pollution in neighbourhood, feeding difficulties in first week, breast feeding, maternal education, paternal education, light sleeper at 12 months.

  • Variables with p⩾0.05 were: number of siblings, sibling with asthma, cohabitation, maternal and paternal employment, type of housing, dampness or mould in the house, access to a summer cottage, lifestyle (leisure activities), regular maternity check-ups, maternal alcohol consumption during or after pregnancy, low birth weight, preterm birth, admission to neonatal ward, neonatal antibiotics, early introduction of cow’s milk (first week), temperament first week, weak sucking, vomiting, maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal and paternal smoking after pregnancy, sleeping position, sleeping place, hours outdoors, sleeping indoors with outdoor clothes on, temperament at 6 months, colicky pains, appetite, dummy at 6 months, cohabitation, maternal return to work, moved house between 6 and 12 months, cat or rodent at home, age at introduction of cow’s milk, gluten, solids or eggs, type of fat used in cooking, vegetarianism in family, AD vitamin supplementation, appetite, vaccinations, antibiotics in first year, early antibiotic treatment, sleeping position, sleeping place, night awakenings, temperament at 12 months and dummy at 12 months.