Table 1 Summary of statistical tests performed
(A) Comparisons between LE and BIL speakers
StutterersM/F ratio% Stutter in one/both languagesAge at stuttering onsetSATSSSI-3
LE, n = 154:10%4 years 9 monthsSame as all peersSame as other stutterers
BIL, n = 234.75:15.3%4 years 10 monthsSame as all peersSame as other stutterers
(B) Comparison between all bilingual stutterers and bilingual non-stutterers
Prevalence of a second language in respective sample
Bilingual stutterers21.8%
Bilingual non-stutterers28.4%
(C) Comparisons between stuttering and non-stuttering groups
Incidence of LE and BILRecovery rate of LE and BIL
Stuttering sampleFewer LE than BILRecovery rate of LE better than that of BIL
Non-stuttering sampleMore LE than BIL
  • BIL, bilingual from birth; LE, learned English at school; M/F, male/female; NS, not significant; SATS, Standard Attainment Test educational score; SSI-3, Stuttering Severity Instrument, Third Edition.