Table 2 Changes in body mass, fatness and metabolic status from 5 years to 8 years by physical activity group, mean (95% CI)
BoysGirls
Less activeMore activep ValueLess activeMore activep Value
n (%)56 (50%)57 (50%)50 (51%)49 (49%)
Age at 5-year visit (years)4.88 (4.82 to 4.95)4.96 (4.89 to 5.03)0.114.89 (4.82 to 4.95)4.97 (4.88 to 5.06)0.13
Follow-up 5–8-year visits (years)2.92 (2.90 to 2.94)2.91 (2.89 to 2.93)0.372.91 (2.89 to 2.93)2.93 (2.91 to 2.94)0.15
Changes in body mass and
fatness (8 years−5 years)
    BMI (kg/m2)0.5 (0.2 to 0.9)0.6 (0.3 to 0.9)0.771.0 (0.5 to 1.5)1.0 (0.5 to 1.5)0.98
    BMI SDS0.09 (−0.08 to 0.26)0.13 (−0.03 to 0.30)0.700.03 (−0.16 to 0.23)0.05 (−0.15 to 0.24)0.93
    Sum of five skinfolds (cm)1.0 (0.4 to 1.5)0.7 (0.1 to 1.3)0.541.9 (1.3 to 2.4)1.8 (1.0 to 2.3)0.50
    Waist (cm)5.6 (4.8 to 6.4)5.2 (4.4 to 6.0)0.476.5 (5.3 to 7.6)5.9 (4.8 to 7.1)0.50
Changes in metabolic status
(8 years−5 years)
    Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)−0.12 (−0.19 to −0.05)−0.13 (−0.20 to −0.06)0.84−0.15 (−0.24 to −0.05)−0.30 (−0.40 to −0.20)0.03
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.03 (−0.04 to 0.09)−0.02 (−0.08 to 0.04)0.270.03 (−0.07 to 0.14)−0.13 (−0.28 to −0.03)0.04
    Cholesterol/HDL ratio−0.35 (−0.47 to −0.24)−0.43 (−0.50 to −0.29)0.63−0.31 (−0.46 to −0.17)−0.37 (−0.51 to −0.22)0.61
    Mean arterial blood pressure3.1 (1.9 to 4.3)1.3 (0.2 to 2.5)0.033.4 (1.9 to 4.9)2.9 (1.4 to 4.5)0.66
    (mm Hg)
    Metabolic status* (mean0.14 (−0.01 to 0.28)−0.10 (−0.23 to 0.04)0.020.05 (−0.11 to 0.21)−0.17 (−0.34 to −0.01)0.06
    z score)
  • *Internally derived time point specific z scores were calculated for each of the four metabolic variables and averaged to create a composite metabolic z score for each child.

  • Less (more) active group = below (above) the gender-specific median min/day at ⩾3 METs based on the average of four annual time points. All body mass, fatness and metabolic comparisons controlled for age, time to follow-up and respective baseline measurements. Physical activity data adjusted for seasonality and accelerometer sensitivity. BMI, body mass index; HDL, high density lipoprotein; MET, metabolic equivalent of thermogenesis; SDS, standard deviation scores.