Table 1 Subject characteristics at baseline, mean (95% CI)
Boys (n = 113)Girls (n = 99)p Value
Age (years)4.92 (4.88 to 4.97)4.92 (4.87 to 4.98)0.96
Weight (kg)19.5 (18.9 to 20.0)20.0 (19.3 to 20.7)0.26
Height (cm)110.5 (109.5 to 111.4)109.4 (108.5 to 110.4)0.13
Body mass and fatness
    BMI (kg/m2)16.3 (16.0 to 16.6)16.2 (15.9 to 16.6)0.93
    BMI SDS0.14 (−0.05 to 0.33)0.55 (0.32 to 0.77)0.006
    Sum of five skinfolds* (cm)3.78 (3.56 to 4.02)4.34 (4.11 to 4.58)0.001
    Waist (cm)51.5 (50.7 to 52.3)51.1 (50.4 to 51.8)0.48
Metabolic status
    Insulin resistance* (HOMA-IR)0.45 (0.40 to 0.51)0.66 (0.59 to 0.75)<0.001
    Triglycerides* (mmol/l)0.53 (0.50 to 0.57)0.67 (0.62 to 0.73)<0.001
    Cholesterol/HDL ratio2.88 (2.77 to 2.99)3.05 (2.91 to 3.19)0.06
    Mean arterial blood pressure (mm Hg)73.3 (72.1 to 74.5)73.4 (72.1 to 74.7)0.91
    Metabolic status† (mean z score)−0.15 (−0.26 to −0.05)0.21 (0.09 to 0.33)<0.001
  • *Values are back-transformed means and 95% CI of logged data.

  • †Internally derived time point specific z scores were calculated for each of the four metabolic risk factors and averaged to create a composite metabolic z score for each child.

  • BMI, body mass index; HDL, high density lipoprotein; SDS, standard deviation scores.