Table 3 Behavioural and emotional problems reported in children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)*
Cases of FAS(n = 92), n (%)
Externalising problems
    Oppositional defiant disorder
        Aggression/violence14 (15.2)
        Oppositional behaviour7 (7.6)
        Disruptive behaviour1 (1.1)
        Disobedient/uncooperative1 (1.1)
        Acting out1 (1.1)
    Attention/hyperactivity disorders
        Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder11 (12)
        Hyperactivity11 (12)
        Attention/concentration problems7 (7.6)
        Neonatal irritability (? alcohol withdrawal)2 (2.2)
        Impulsivity2 (2.2)
        Irritability1 (1.1)
        Internalising problems
    Anxiety2 (2.2)
        Withdrawn/socially isolated5 (5.4)
        Easily distressed, emotional fragility, emotional lability4 (4.4)
        Problems adjusting to new carers3 (3.3)
        Panic attacks2 (2.2)
        Solitary repetitive behaviour1 (1.1)
        Post-traumatic stress disorder1 (1.1)
    Depression1 (1.1)
    Abnormal eating behaviours1 (1.1)
    School problems
        Bullied/teased, school absenteeism4 (4.4)
    Autistic spectrum disorders, self injury, inappropriate5 (5.5)
    sexual behaviours
  • *Behavioural and emotional symptoms and conditions have been classified according to the broad diagnostic categories used in ICD-10. Some children had more that one problem reported.