Table 1 Examples of specific items added or removed during the process of creating new more culturally appropriate tool
Domain of developmentDDST or Denver II items removed at stage 1New items replaced at stage 1Denver II/Griffith’s items removed or needing modification after consensus meetingNew items removed or needing modification after consensus meeting
Gross motor1. Head up to 45°1. Dances to music1. Pulls self to stand (not1. Dances (not specific enough)
2. Walks up steps2. Kneels well to be respectfulunderstood by research2. Carries object on head with one hand
3. Pedals tricycle3. Climbs and gets downassistants)(need to specify exact object)
4. Carries object on head with2. Touches toes with legs3. Carries water on head with no hands
one handstraight (difficult to teach)(need to specify size)
5. Pushes wheel with stick
6. Carries water on
head– no hands
Fine motor1. Looks for yarn1. Bangs drum/pot1. Draws a person with 3 parts1. Moulds ball with clay (task not
2. Thumb wiggle2. Moulds ball with clay(many not passing by age 6)normally done by children)
3. Thumb finger grasp3. Makes doll of clay2. Draws a person with 6 parts2. Bangs drum/pot (translation “plays
4. Sorts objects into groups(many not passing by age 6)drum” incorrect)
5. Picks longest stick3. Builds house of corn cobs (sex specific)
Language1. Responds to bell1. Sings1. Knows 3 colours (colours1. Uses respectful terms (poor reliability)
2. Squeals2. Knows today and tomorrowused differently in Malawi)2. Knows father’s name (poor reliability)
3. Points to pictures/name3. Knows name of own village2. Knows opposites (not specific3. Can count bottle tops to 10 (counting
pictures4. Uses respectful termsenough–question neededlearned at school– not many children
4. Counts 1 block5. Knows father’s nameclarifying)in school/nursery aged under 5)
5. Uses plurals6. Can count bottle tops to 10
Social1. Plays pat-a-cake1. Shares things1. Helps in house1. Spends most of time on mum’s back
2. Plays ball with examiner2. Plays with friends2. Puts on clothing with help(family dependent)
3. Resists toy pull3. Spends most of time on(poor reliability)2. Shy with strangers (poor reliability)
4. Plays peek-a-boomum’s back3. Feeds self (specify what3. Sweeps (sex specific)
6. Uses spoon/fork4. Eats with family in a grouptype of food)4. Washes dishes (sex specific)
7. Feeds doll5. Can plant seeds by self4. Drinks from cup by self5. Goes to the toilet with help (not specific
8. Brushes teeth with help6. Washes dishes(not specific enoughenough, eg, older children need help using
9. Names a friend7. Washes clothesregarding how well or notpit latrines)
10. Plays board games8. Sweepschild needed to do this)
12. Prepares cereal9. Goes to the toilet with help
13. Plays interactive games, eg, tag10. Goes to the toilet by self
14. Buttons up11. Makes porridge by self
12. Adds wood to fire
13. Can build fire by self