Table 3

 Impacts of paediatric surveillance unit studies

StudyImpactParticipating PSU
A kindy farm is an open farm where children can interact with the animals. PIND, progressive intellectual and neurological deterioration; SLOS, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.
Acute flaccidConfirmed absence of wild poliovirus and presence of vaccine-associated paralytic polio;APSU, BPSU, CPSP,
paralysiscontributed to WHO eradication and accreditation programNZPSU, SPSU
Haemophilus Documented success of Hib vaccination programs including with use of combined pentavalentAPSU, ESPED, NSCK
influenzae typevaccine
B infection
Pertussis infectionInformed changes to vaccination schedules; identified need to review age of first vaccination andAPSU, BPSU, CGPSU,
in infantsfor targeted adult/adolescent vaccinationNSCK, NZPSU
Pneumococcal infectionDocumented disease burden and supported universal vaccination programsESPED, NZPSU
Congenital rubellaDocumented persistence of CRS despite good vaccine coverage, and identified need for targetedAPSU, BPSU, CPSP,
syndrome (CRS)vaccination for susceptible women (eg, immigrants, non-immune, pre-conception and postpartum)NZPSU, SPSU, NSCK
Subacute sclerosingConfirmed disease is rare in countries with well implemented measles vaccination programs and isAPSU, BPSU, CPSP,
panencephalitisassociated with wild measles virus infectionESPED
Congenital varicella,Supported need for universal vaccination, use of antiviral therapy and education for communityAPSU, BPSU, CPSP,
neonatal varicella,and health professionals regarding infection in pregnancyESPED, SPSU
complications
Neonatal herpes simplexConfirmed HSV-1 is most prevalent type in Australia and Canada, incidence is lower in theseAPSU, BPSU, CPSP,
virus infectioncountries than in the USA and disease is often severe. Identified need for effective screening;SPSU
development of vaccines against HSV-1 and 2
HIV/AIDS, perinatalSupported recommendations for use of anti-retroviral agents, caesarean section and bottle feedingAPSU, BPSU, LPSU,
exposure to HIVin infected mothers. Confirmed benefit of antenatal diagnosis and supported recommendation ofNSCK, NZPSU
universal prenatal screening in some countries
Invasive group BRecommend development of national prevention guidelines and screening (universal or based onBPSU, CPSP, ESPED,
streptococcal diseaserisk factors) in late pregnancyNSCK, PPSU
PIND and childhoodIdentified cases of variant CJD in the UK but not in Canada but no trend to increased rate overAPSU, BPSU, CPSP
dementiatime. Although PIND has many aetiologies, many cases are idiopathic; all are highly demanding
of health services
Early onset eating disorderConfirmed need for pre-adolescent diagnostic criteria. Substantial proportion of boys identifiedAPSU, BPSU, CPSP,
(<13 years old)aged ⩽9 yearsNSCK
Conversion disorderFirst national study; described clinical features, disease burden, co-morbidity and risk of recurrenceAPSU
Munchausen syndromeIdentified large disease burden, feelings of isolation in clinicians and need for multidisciplinaryAPSU, BPSU
by proxysupport for diagnosis and management
Rett syndrome, Prader-WilliDescribed molecular epidemiology and genotype-phenotype correlations; established researchAPSU, BPSU, CPSP
syndrome, SLOScohorts for longitudinal, intervention and other studies
CHARGE associationIdentified the complexity of CHARGE, its overlap with other syndromes and the need for futureAPSU, CPSP
health resources, and facilitated genetic studies
Medium chain acyl CoAConfirmed the value of neonatal tandem mass spectrometry screening for early identificationBPSU, NSCK
dehydrogenase deficiencyof disease
Vitamin K deficiencyConfirmed most cases are late onset and related to underlying liver disease; a high proportion ofAPSU, BPSU, CPSP,
bleedingcases receive no or incomplete prophylaxisESPED, NZPSU, SPSU,
NSCK
Fetal alcohol syndromeIdentified need for universal diagnostic criteria, specialised services, education of healthAPSU, NZPSU
professionals and the community, and prevention
Haemolytic uraemicDescribed geographic variation in aetiology, highlighting the need for new diagnostic tests.APSU, BPSU, CPSP,
syndromeSupported preventative measures, eg education, hygiene regulations for kindy farms andLPSU, NZPSU, PPSU,
legislation regarding food production*SPSU
Chemistry set poisoningResulted in amended legislation in the UK regarding packaging and provision of informationBPSU
Reye syndromeRecommended ban of aspirin in paediatric and youth populationsBPSU, ESPED
Baby walkersSupported ban on sale, re-sale, advertisement and importation of baby walkers in CanadaCPSP
Lap-belt syndromeResulted in call for age- and size-appropriate use of restraints for children in motor vehiclesCPSP, APSU