Table 5 Abusive intra-oral injury
Authors/yearAbuse rankNumber of children (age)Orofacial injuries found
Tate, 19712912 (23 months and 4 years)Case 1, chipped upper incisor, also torn frenum and fractures, killed 3 weeks later
Case 2, severe laceration of upper lip and loose tooth. Multiple other soft tissue injuries
Becker et al, 197814260 (not given by authors)49% orofacial trauma, 14 intra-oral, 4 dental trauma, no other detail on location
Swann and Glasgow, 19822721 (7 weeks)Oral bleeding, bruise and ulcer to fauces, abrasions and bruising to gingiva and around tongue
Schuman, 19872411 (10 years)Midroot fracture of maxillary incisor
Sobel, 19832511 (4 years)Facial abrasions/bruises, bruising of upper and lower lip, laceration of gingival and alveolar mucosa, intrusion of one incisor and avulsion of incisor, fractured mandible
Grace and Grace, 19871713 (10–18 months)Abrasions of hard palate with associated trauma to ear in one case, two cases of laceration to pharyngeal wall, one with associated intracranial injury and one trauma to ear
Symons et al, 19872841 (3 years)Fatally abused, abrasion of upper lip, laceration of frenum of upper lip, intracranial haemorrhage
Manning et al, 19902011 (4 months)Recurrent oral bleeding, abrasions and lacerations of upper gum, hard palate, floor of mouth and frenum. Retropharyngeal abscess
Carrotte, 19901513 (13 years, n/a)Dental extraction of permanent teeth by parents as a punishment
Barrett and Debelle, 19951321Tear on posterior pharyngeal wall, forcible removal of an impacted dummy
Naidoo, 2000212300 (1 month–14.25 years)22 lacerations to lips, 6 injuries to oral mucosa, 5 to teeth, 5 to gingiva, 3 to tongue. Also unspecified number of loose or missing teeth. Seven fractures of mandible/maxilla
Lee et al, 20021911 (10 months)Adult bite to the infants tongue, herpetic lesions perioral and intra-oral, also multiple fractures, skin lesions and lacerations to ear and neck
Stricker et al, 20022611 (9 days)Bleeding lesion on hard palate, discharged, returned at 4 weeks with multiple fractures and intracranial haemorrhage
Phillips and van34Bruised lips, lacerated lips, bruised alveolar mucosa, avulsed teeth. All fatal cases,
der Heyde, 200630(20 months, 2.5 years,co-existent lacerations, bruises, burns, fractures, sexual abuse (one case) and
3 years, 5 years)scars to body, with fatal visceral and head injuries