Table 4 Studies of abusive torn frena
Author/yearAbuse ranking (1–5)Number of children (ages)Co-existing injuriesFatal/live
Cameron et al, 196614313 approx (0–4.5 years)Some tearing of the upper lip, near the frenumAll fatal
Tate, 1971291, 43 (23 months–4 years)With/without intracranial injury1 live, 2 fatal
Grace and Grace, 19871711 (18 months)Later readmitted - multiple fractures, intracranial injury,Live
pharyngeal puncture
Symons et al, 19872841 (3 years)Contusion of eye/subdural haemorrhage, multiple bruisesFatal
Manning et al, 19902031 (4 months)Lacerations to uvula, upper gum, hard palate, floor of mouth.Live
Later retropharyngeal abscess
Hobbs and Wynne, 19901811 (0.4 years)Multiple bruises, sexual abuse, fractures and retinalFatal
haemorrhages, developmental delay
Price et al, 20002315 (0–10 years)Extensive abdominal injuries, other injuries not detailedAll fatal
in these cases
Cordner et al 20011611 (18 months)Occipital skull fracture, intracranial haemorrhage,Fatal
widespread bruising
Phillips and van31 (5 years)Tramline bruising to legs, also bruising to eyes, ear and scalp.Fatal
der Heyde, 200630Cerebral oedema