Table 2 Pain measures in infants immunised with standard and pragmatic techniques
CategoryStandard,n = 57Pragmatic,n = 56p Value*
MBPS†5.6 (5 to 6.3)3.3 (2.6 to 3.9)<0.001
Cried, n (%)47 (82)24 (43)<0.001
Crying duration (s)14.7 (8.7 to 35.6)0 (0 to 11.30)<0.001
VAS parent†3.5 (1.6 to 5.5)1.9 (0.1 to 3.1)<0.001
VAS physician†2.8 (2.0 to 5.1)1.4 (0.2 to 2.4)<0.001
  • Values are mean (95% confidence interval) for MBPS, where scores range from 0 to 10. Values are median (IQR) for crying duration, VAS parent and VAS physician, where scores range from 0 to 10. IQR, interquartile range; MBPS, Modified Behavioural Pain Scale; VAS, visual analogue scale.

  • *t test, Mann Whitney U test or χ2 test, as appropriate; †Δ (post-vaccination score minus pre-vaccination score).