Table 3

 Outcome of comparison studies between core temperature

AuthorNo of patientsCore siteOther sitesMain outcome/conclusion
(PA, pulmonary artery; O, oesophageal; B, bladder temperatures) as reference standard and ear-based temperature. Group A: studies found TT to be accurate or close to accurate. Group B: studies found TT to be less or not accurate. A, adults; AT, axillary temperature; C, children; CT, core temperature; FS, forehead skin temperature; OT, oral temperature; TT, tympanic temperature.
Group A
    Robinson et al4015 CPA/OAT/RTTT more accurate than RT
    Robinson et al4118 APA/OAT/RTTT 2nd to O, TT is the reading of choice
    Shinozaki et al4227 APARTTT tracks PA closely
    Erickson et al4330 CBAT/RTTT correlates relatively well with PA
    Erickson et al4438 APA/BAT/OTTT is relatively close estimate of PA
    Erickson et al4550 ABAT/OTTT has good correlation with B
    Summers4696 AOATNo difference between TT and O
    Amoateng-Adjepong et al4751 APARTBoth TT and RT are accurate
    Klein et al48128 APAAT/RTPA and TT are highly correlated
    Schmitz et al4913 APAAT/OT/RTIf RT contraindicated, OT or TT acceptable
    Milewski et al509 APARTPA and TT: not significantly different
    Romano et al5120 CPAAT/RTTT may be used instead of PA
    Chang et al5232 APAAT/RTTT reflects PA more accurately than RT and AT
Group B
    Nierman5315 APA/BNoneTT appears to give high readings
    Fullbrook5460 APAATTT is clinically not reliable
    Giuliano et al55102 APAOTOT is most accurate
    Giuliano et al5672 APAOTOT more accurate
    Lattavo et al5732 APAAT/OTTT is not ideal
    Heidenreich et al5825 APA/B/OAT/OT/FSNo non-invasive method is valid