Table 2

 Characteristics of excluded studies

StudyMethodsParticipantsInterventionsPrimary outcome of studyReason for exclusion
ADH, antidiuretic hormone; IV, intravenous; PO, oral.
Neville (2005)15Cohort studyChildren with gastroenteritis (n = 52)Hypotonic IV fluidsPNa, osmolality, ADH, urine electrolytes and osmolality, cortisol, and thyroid hormoneNo control group
Cupido (2000)25Cohort studyPost-op craniofacial patients (n = 16)Isotonic fluidPNaNo control group
Halberthal (2001)30Retrospective chart reviewHospital acquired severe hyponatraemia within 48 h admission (n = 23).Hypotonic fluidFactors contributing to hospital acquired hyponatraemiaNo control group
Gerick (1996)21Case-control study103 cases, 31 age matched controlsIV/PO fluid therapyADH and plasma renin activity in cases v controlsOutcomes of interest not described
Levine (2001)24Cohort studyCraniofacial patients (n = 10)Isotonic IV fluidSerum and urine electrolytesNo control group
Judd (1990)34Case-control studyTonsillectomy (n = 13)Gp 1: perioperative NS IV fluid. GP 2: NPO, no IV fluidsSerum electrolytes, ADH, and plasma renin activityOnly one intervention of interest described
Duke (2002)35RCTChildren with meningitisHypotonic IV fluids v moderate oral fluid restrictionSurvival and neurological statusOnly one intervention of interest described
Cowley (1988)20Cohort study8 healthy children undergoing scoliosis repairType of fluids not described individuallySerum and urine electrolytes, ADH and renin activityType of fluids not individually described
Arieff (1999)36Retrospective chart reviewFatal cases of post-op hyponatraemiaNot describedVolume of fluid administeredIntervention not described, primarily adult study
Wattad (1992)37Retrospective chart reviewPatients admitted with hyponatraemiaNot describedAetiology of hyponatraemiaInterventions of interest not described
Dunn (1997)38Retrospective chart reviewPatients with PNa>165 or Na<130Not describedAetiology of hospital acquired PNa derangementsInterventions of interest not described
McCormick (1999)39Retrospective chart reviewElective paediatric general surgical casesHypotonic or isotonic fluidsNot describedOutcomes of interest not described
Powell (1990)23RCTChildren with meningitisFluid restriction v maintenance plus deficit replacementPNa, plasma AVP levelsType of fluids not individually described