Table 1

 Characteristics of included studies that have examined the effect of circumcision on urinary tract infection in male subjects

Study designReferenceYearCountrySettingnNo of UTI episodesAge (months, years)
*Outpatient data not included in analysis as they did not accurately define UTI events.
RCT, randomised controlled trial; UTI, urinary tract infection.
RCTNayir212001TurkeyHospital outpatients7033 months to 10 years
Cohort studiesSchoen et al222000USAHospital in/outpatient14 893154<1 year
To et al11998CanadaHospital in/outpatient*58 434330<3 years
Wiswell and Hachey61993USAHospital inpatient107 598496<1 year
Wiswell et al51987USAHospital inpatient219 775610<1 year
Case–control studiesCraig et al231996AustraliaHospital in/outpatient886144<5 years
Newman et al242002USANon-hospital outpatients76956<3 months
Rushton and Majd251992USAHospital inpatient8623<6 months
Spach et al261992USACommunity sexually transmitted diseases clinic7826Adult
Crain and Gershel271990USAHospital outpatient8122<2 months
Kashani and Faraday281989USAHospital inpatient126171 month to 2 years
Herzog291989USAHospital outpatient11236<1 year