Table 1

 Summary of published clinical trials of azithromycin (modified from Hilliard and Balfour-Lynn25 with permission from the authors)

Centre (reference)Trial designAzithromycin dosenLength of treatment period (mth)FEV1 (drug v placebo)Other clinical outcomesInflammatory markersAdverse effects
Australia Two centres16Parallel250 mg daily60 adults3Mean relative difference +3.6%↓ intravenous antibiotics ↑ quality of life↓ CRPNil
UK Single centre17Crossover250 or 500 mg daily41 children >8 y6Median relative difference +5.4%↓ oral antibioticsNo difference sputum IL-8, neutrophil elastaseNil
USA Multicentre19Parallel250 or 500 mg 3/week185 children >6 y and adults6Mean relative difference +6.2%↓ nonquinolone antibiotics ↓ exacerbation ↑ weightModest ↓ sputum elastase, no difference IL-8Nausea, diarrhoea, wheezing