Table 3

 Studies with a comparison group (data expressed as cases mean (SD) versus controls mean (SD))

Population based studies
Mitchell, 198012Weight: 86% normal wt v 96%, p<0.05
>Height: 97% normal weight v 99%
McCarthy Scale of Children’s Abilities: General Cognitive Index 87.5 v 92.5 (sd12.9), p = NSNo behavioural deficits on behavioural questionnaireNo organic disease found. Life events score was a predictor of GCI
Corbett, 199613Mean weight SD −0.53 (0.83)v 0.34 (1.11), p<0.001 Mean height SD:−0.5 (0.99)v 0.07 (1.29), p = 0.02WISC-R (Wechsler Preschool and Primary scale of intelligence–revised)
>IQ 83.6 (11.5)v 87 (11.9)(p = NS)
No difference in number of behaviour problems Child Behaviour Checklist: 33 v 34 Teachers’ report form: 23 v 144 in care; there was a relation between severity of FTT and IQ, p = 0.03
Drewett, 199914Weight: 18th centile v 56th centile Height: 21st centile v 47th centileWISC IQ 87.6 (17.4)v 90.6 (17.1) p = NS Reading score 93.5 (16.2)v 94.5 (15.6) p = NSFTT paternal height significantly shorter
>IQ difference reduced to a mean of 1.7 when maternal IQ factored in
>When parental height was taken into consideration the height difference between groups was marginally reduced
Kerr, 200015WISC-R 78 (13.8) to 82 (12.8)v 83.6 (12.4) to 84 (12.5) range depending on presence of maltreatment or notChild Behavior Checklist 28.1 (22.8) to 34.9 (21.2) vs 26.7 (18.4) to 29 (20.5) range depending on presence of maltreatment or not
>No increase in school behaviour problems or maternal report of problems unless maltreatment also present
Overall 97% had wt for ht >95%
Boddy, 200016Weight SD −0.97 (0.92)v 0.68 (1.44) p<.001
>Height SD −0.91 (1.25)v 0.27 (0.92), p<0.001
McCarthy Scale of Children’s Abilities: General Cognitive Index 99.8±15.9 v 103.7±19.7, p = NSFTT maternal height significantly shorter
>Strong correlation observed between height and maternal height
Clinical based samples
Singer, 198417Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale NOFTT 78.6 (13)v OFTT 67.7 (20) Controls 97.4 (25)There was high attrition among controls
>FTT parental education was shorter than controls
>Parental education related to: IQ at age 3, p<0.02
Drotar, 199218Inc. in parental report of behavioural symptoms CBC 58.5 (10.7)v 53.2 (12.7), p<0.005 No. of children in clinical behaviour problem range 15 v 10 p = NS
>Deficits in behavioural organisation, ego control and resiliency
Reif, 199519Weight centile: 18.1 (2.35)v 36 (3.0), p<0.001
>Height centile: 21 (2.8)v 53.6 (2.9), p<0.01
Learning difficulties 18%v 3.1%
>Developmental delay 11.5% v 0%
School problems and poor achievement commonerOverall 85% were >5% for weight, 90% were >5% for height
>Maternal height and birth weight were lower in cases than controls. Birth weight, maternal height, and education correlated with outcome