Table 1

 Baseline characteristics on enrolment by treatment group

CharacteristicsIntervention groupControl group
(n = 64)(n = 61)
Mean (SD*)Mean (SD*)
*SDs are within clinic.
†Sanitation (rating of water and toilet facilities combined), range 0–12.
‡Possessions (number of possessions), range 0–10.
¶Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (a measure of verbal IQ).
Characteristics of child
Child age (months)18.4 (4.5)18.5 (5.2)
Child gender, % girls (n)62.5 (40)67.2 (41)
Weight for age−2.18 (0.46)−2.15 (0.45)
Weight for height−1.70 (0.54)−1.59 (0.66)
Height for age−1.47 (0.87)−1.48 (0.76)
Developmental quotient105.4 (8.9)104.4 (11.1)
Socioeconomic indicators
Crowding (persons per room)2.8 (1.3)2.9 (1.4)
Sanitation†7.8 (2.8)7.9 (2.6)
Possessions‡5.1 (1.9)5.1 (1.7)
Characteristics of mother
Mother’s PPVT¶95.4 (20.8)94.3 (18.1)
Mother’s age (years)26.0 (7.1)25.7 (7.2)
Maternal depression (median and range)26 (0–91)27 (0–86)
Father lives in home, % (n)46.2 (30)34.4 (21)
Mother works, % (n)28.1 (18)29.5 (18)
Mother completed high school, % (n)43.8 (28)37.7 (23)
Mother’s work, % (n)
    Unskilled/never worked35.9 (23)37.7 (23)
    Semi-skilled45.3 (29)41.0 (25)
    Skilled18.8 (12)21.3 (13)