Table 3

 Chemical agents and their properties

Mnemonic:NoVictimsCanComeIn
BZ, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate.
AgentNerveVesicantsChokingCyanogensIncapacitating
ExamplesTabun, sarin, soman, VXMustard gas, nitrogenPhosgeneHydrogen cyanideCannabinoids,
mustardbarbiturates, 3-
quinuclidinyl
benzilate (BZ)
SymptomsCNS (weakness, hypotonia,Eyes: tearing, itch, burningCough,“Cherry red” skin,Delirium (BZ)
stupor, coma), miosis, secretionsSkin: erythraemia, vesiclesdyspnea,dyspnea, CNS
from nose and mouth, respiratoryAirways: rhinorrhea, cough,pulmonaryexcitement
distressdyspneaoedemafollowed by CNS
depression (coma)
ProviderRemoval of clothes,Removal of clothes,Removal of clothes,Removal of clothes,
precautionsshower, personal protectiveshower, personal protectiveshower, personalshower, personal
equipmentequipmentprotective equipmentprotective equipment
AntidotesAtropine 0.05–0.1 mg/kg IV IMNoneNoneAmyl nitrate 1–2 amps,Physostigmine (BZ)
(max 5 mg); pralidoxime >15 kgcrushed, inhaled;0.02 mg/kg IV,
use 600 mg autoinjector, <15 kgsodium nitrite (3%)no faster than
25–50 mg/kg IV IM (max 1 g IV;0.27–0.39 ml/kg0.5 mg/min
2 g IM); diazepam(max 10 cc);
0.05–0.3 mg/kgsodium thiosulfate (25%)
(max 10 mg)1.65 ml/kg (max 50 ml)