Table 2

 Theophylline derivatives for bronchiolitis induced apnoea

CitationStudy groupStudy type (level of evidence)OutcomeKey resultsComments
Tobias (2000)7 infants with RSV associated apnoea Gestational age 28–32 weeks Age at presentation 14–64 daysRetrospective review (level 4)Prevention of mechanical ventilationNo infant had episodes of apnoea or bradycardia from 2 to18 hours after the initial loading doseInitial dose of caffeine base was 10 mg/kg and if further doses are needed, given as 5 mg/kg as second dose and 2.5 mg/kg as third dose
Johnston and Kuzemko (1992)2 infants 1. RSV positive. Gestational age 33 weeks. Post conceptional age 40 weeks 2.Echo virus type 2. Gestational age 36 weeks. Post conceptional age 37 weeksCase report (level 4)Prevention of mechanical ventilationRespiration became regular with disappearance of apnoea immediately after administration of aminophylline5 mg/kg of iv aminophylline followed by 5–7 days of oral theophylline
DeBuse and Cartwright (1979)1 infant with RSV positive bronchiolitis. Gestational age 29 weeks. Post conceptional age 38 weeks.Case report (level 4)Prevention of mechanical ventilationNo apnoeic episodes occurred 9 hours after administration of theophyllineOral theophylline. Loading dose of 10 mg/kg in aliquots,then 4 mg/kg 6 hrly ×24 hours followed by 1 mg/kg