Table 1

 Characteristics in children with HIV at culture confirmed tuberculosis diagnosis (n = 93 episodes)

TotalCDC HIV stage BCDC HIV stage Cp value
n = 93 (%)n = 35 (%)n = 58(%)
CDC HIV stage: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.6 All missing data were excluded from analysis. As there were only two children with stage A disease, CDC HIV categories A and B were combined for analysis purposes (n = 32). Analyses performed with and without disease category A were identical.
†Age in months. *Student’s t test. **Statistically significant; all p values reported are one sided exact p values, χ2 statistic, or Fishers’ exact test.
MDR, multidrug resistant tuberculosis; TB, tuberculosis; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; BCG, bacille Calmette-Guerin; TST, tuberculin skin test; PEM, marasmus/kwashiorkor according to the Wellcome classification; Peripheral adenopathy, HIV related persistent generalised lymphadenopathy; Respiratory distress, tachypnoeic; Cavitating TB, cavities noted on chest radiograph; Miliary TB, exclusive miliary opacification on chest radiography that improved on antituberculosis therapy; PTB, pulmonary tuberculosis; EPTB, extrapulmonary tuberculosis; Sputum microscopy, Ziehl-Nielsen microscopy for acid-fast bacilli.
Demographic features
Mean age at TB diagnosis†32.6233.4032.160.740*
Close adult contact57 (61.3)24 (68.6)33 (56.9)0.239
MDR contact2 (2.2)0 (0)2 (3.4)0.323
Previous TB therapy14 (15.1)6 (17.1)8 (13.8)0.418
Previous TB prophylaxis15 (16.1)8 (22.9)7 (12.1)0.125
Clinical characteristics
Documented BCG/scarring58 (62.4)20 (57.1)38 (65.5)0.730
Severe PEM23 (24.7)4 (11.4)19 (32.8)0.017**
Weight for age <3 centile44 (47.3)20 (57.1)24 (41.4)0.104
Peripheral lymphadenopathy84 (90.3)30 (85.7)54 (93.1)0.497
Fever68 (73.1)25 (71.4)43 (74.1)0.479
Cough >2 weeks59 (63.4)24 (68.6)35 (60.3)0.284
Digital clubbing26 (28.0)12 (34.3)14 (24.1)0.206
Respiratory distress (tachypnoeic)65 (69.9)23 (65.7)42 (72.4)0.325
Sputum microscopy positive29/76 done11/28 done18/48 done0.877
(38.0)(39.0)(37.5)
Tuberculin skin test negative34 (43.6)6 (21.4)28 (56.0)0.003**
n = 78 donen = 28 donen = 50 done
(83.9)(80.0)(86.2)
CD4 T lymphocyte ⩽15%21 (41.2)10 (47.6)11 (52.4)0.107
n = 51 donen = 18 donen = 33
(54.8)(51.0)(56.9)
Tuberculosis characteristics
PTB71 (76.3)32 (91.4)39 (67.2)0.006**
EPTB43 (46.2)5 (11.6)38 (88.4)<0.001**
PTB and EPTB21 (22.6)4 (11.4)17 (29.3)0.038**
Miliary TB21 (22.6)6 (17.1)15 (25.9)0.238
Cavitating TB20 (21.5)9 (45.0)11 (55.0)0.303
Mono-drug resistant TB9 (9.7)4 (11.4)5 (8.6)0.450
MDR TB5 (5.4)2 (5.7)3 (5.2)0.626