Table 3

NBAS cluster scores pre- and post-intervention

SwaddlingMassage
Pre-interventionPost-interventionMean differencePre-interventionPost-interventionMean difference
Results expressed as mean (SE).
*Significantly different between pre- and post-intervention. Orientation (p = 0.01), state range (p = 0.02), and state regulation (p = 0.01) cluster scores recovered significantly in the swaddling group.
†Significantly different between the two groups. The mean difference of the orientation (p = 0.05),state range (p = 0.02), and state regulation (p = 0.03) cluster scores were significantly higher in the swaddling group than in the massage group.
Habituation6.7 (0.2)7.0 (0.2)0.3 (0.2)6.9 (0.3)6.9 (0.2)0.1 (0.2)
Orientation4.0 (0.3)4.9 (0.4)*0.9 (0.3)†4.0 (0.4)4.2 (0.4)0.2 (0.3)
Motor3.5 (0.2)4.0 (0.3)0.5 (0.3)3.4 (0.3)3.5 (0.3)0.1 (0.2)
State range3.5 (0.2)3.9 (0.2)*0.4 (0.2)†3.4 (0.2)3.4 (0.3)0.0 (0.2)
State regulation3.5 (0.2)4.0 (0.3)*0.5 (0.2)†3.4 (0.2)3.6 (0.2)0.2 (0.2)
Autonomic stability6.3 (0.2)6.6 (0.2)0.3 (0.3)6.4 (0.3)6.5 (0.2)0.1 (0.3)