Table 1

Characteristics of study subjects

SwaddlingMassagep value
HIE, hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy; PVL, periventricular leukomalacia; IVH, intraventricular haemorrhage.
*Median (range).
†Average (SD).
‡Mann-Whitney U test.
§Fisher’s exact test.
t test.
**χ2 test.
No. of subjects1312
Gender (M/F)10/39/31.00§
Birth weight (g)*1580 (1166–280)1379 (765–150)0.31‡
Low birth weight infants (yes)860.70§
Gestational age at birth (weeks)†33.4 (5.3)34.3 (5.6)0.81¶
Age on entry into trial after birth (weeks)†11.6 (5.1)11.3 (5.6)0.89¶
Apgar score
    1 min†3.6 (2.0)4.3 (1.9)0.68¶
    5 min†5.5 (2.2)5.9 (1.8)0.96¶
Feeding type before intervention
    Mostly breast fed/mostly formula fed1/122/100.59§
Maternal age†30.8 (3.9)31.2 (3.5)0.82¶
Single mother (yes)00
Siblings (yes)340.67§
Maternal education (under high school)00